INDIVIDUAL LEVEL PREDICTORS OF EMOTIONAL LABOR STRATEGIES AND THEIR DIFFERENTIAL OUTCOMES OVER TIME: ROLE OF LEADER BEHAVIOR.
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In this longitudinal study, I evaluate the role of individual level cultural values of power distance, collectivism, and femininity in predicting individuals' emotional labor strategies. Additionally, I identify the differential effects of deep acting and surface acting on outcomes. I also test for the moderating role of leader behaviors on the relationship between emotional labor and job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion. I begin with a qualitative research phase to identify the leader behaviors that influence the relationship between emotional labor strategies and outcomes. Then I use a survey-based field study to test my model where I collected data from 198 individuals at time 1 and one month later at time 2. I also collected matching data on performance from their supervisors at both time 1 and time 2. Results demonstrate that individuals who are high on collectivism tend to engage in emotional labor and surface acting more than individuals who are low on collectivism. I did not find support for the hypotheses relating power distance and femininity with emotional labor strategies. Surface acting had a positive impact on emotional exhaustion and depersonalization at time 1 and time 2. Deep acting had a positive impact on job satisfaction at time 1 and time 2. However, deep acting had a negative impact on job performance at time 2. Several leader behaviors such as leader inclusiveness, empowering leadership, and leader positive emotional expression interacted with surface acting and deep acting to predict emotional exhaustion and satisfaction at time 1 and time 2.Psychological safety interacted with surface and deep acting to predict emotional exhaustion at time 1 and time 2. I discuss the theoretical and practical implications of the findings.