Static Analysis in Practice
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Static analysis tools search software looking for defects that may cause an application to deviate from its intended behavior. These include defects that compute incorrect values, cause runtime exceptions or crashes, expose applications to security vulnerabilities, or lead to performance degradation. In an ideal world, the analysis would precisely identify all possible defects. In reality, it is not always possible to infer the intent of a software component or code fragment, and static analysis tools sometimes output spurious warnings or miss important bugs. As a result, tool makers and researchers focus on developing heuristics and techniques to improve speed and accuracy. But, in practice, speed and accuracy are not sufficient to maximize the value received by software makers using static analysis. Software engineering teams need to make static analysis an effective part of their regular process. In this dissertation, I examine the ways static analysis is used in practice by commercial and open source users. I observe that effectiveness is hampered, not only by false warnings, but also by true defects that do not affect software behavior in practice. Indeed, mature production systems are often littered with true defects that do not prevent them from functioning, mostly correctly. To understand why this occurs, observe that developers inadvertently create both important and unimportant defects when they write software, but most quality assurance activities are directed at finding the important ones. By the time the system is mature, there may still be a few consequential defects that can be found by static analysis, but they are drowned out by the many true but low impact defects that were never fixed. An exception to this rule is certain classes of subtle security, performance, or concurrency defects that are hard to detect without static analysis. Software teams can use static analysis to find defects very early in the process, when they are cheapest to fix, and in so doing increase the effectiveness of later quality assurance activities. But this effort comes with costs that must be managed to ensure static analysis is worthwhile. The cost effectiveness of static analysis also depends on the nature of the defect being sought, the nature of the application, the infrastructure supporting tools, and the policies governing its use. Through this research, I interact with real users through surveys, interviews, lab studies, and community-wide reviews, to discover their perspectives and experiences, and to understand the costs and challenges incurred when adopting static analysis tools. I also analyze the defects found in real systems and make observations about which ones are fixed, why some seemingly serious defects persist, and what considerations static analysis tools and software teams should make to increase effectiveness. Ultimately, my interaction with real users confirms that static analysis is well received and useful in practice, but the right environment is needed to maximize its return on investment.