Implementation of E-Beam Proximity Effect Correction Using Linear Programming Techniques for the Fabrication of Asymmetric Bow-Tie Antennas
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Asymmetric nano-bow-tie antennas offer the possibility of direct light-to-electrical energy conversion. These nano-antennas are easily integrated with conductor-barrier-conductor (CBC) tunnel junctions in between the antenna segments for the purpose of coupled signal rectification. The architecture of the tunnel junction together with the antenna size precision require nano-scale patterning accuracy. Electron Beam Lithography (EBL) is used for patterning purposes. In this study Proximity Effect (PE), a very common resolution problem in EBL, is reduced by a dose modulation technique employing linear programming (LP) algorithms. Production of tightly controlled antenna segment dimensions is achieved in conjunction with a small area tip and a small tunnel junction gap. It is expected that precise control of the gap geometry will enhance detection speed, enabling the utilization of the device for the visible range energy harvest purposes.