# Aerospace Engineering Research Works

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Item A lionfish-inspired predation strategy in planar structured environments(Institute of Physics, 2023-06-30) Thompson, Anthony A.; Peterson, Ashley N.; McHenry, Matthew J.; Paley, Derek A.This paper investigates a pursuit-evasion game with a single pursuer and evader in a bounded environment, inspired by observations of predation attempts by lionfish (Pterois sp.). The pursuer tracks the evader with a pure pursuit strategy while using an additional bioinspired tactic to trap the evader, i.e. minimize the evader’s escape routes. Specifically, the pursuer employs symmetric appendages inspired by the large pectoral fins of lionfish, but this expansion increases its drag and therefore its work to capture the evader. The evader employs a bioinspired randomly-directed escape strategy to avoid capture and collisions with the boundary. Here we investigate the trade-off between minimizing the work to capture the evader and minimizing the evader’s escape routes. By using the pursuer’s expected work to capture as a cost function, we determine when the pursuer should expand its appendages as a function of the relative distance to the evader and the evader’s proximity to the boundary. Visualizing the pursuer’s expected work to capture everywhere in the bounded domain, yields additional insights about optimal pursuit trajectories and illustrates the role of the boundary in predator-prey interactions.Item A novel approach to inverse design of wind turbine airfoils using tandem neural networks(Wiley, 2024-05-30) Anand, Apurva; Marepally, Koushik; Safdar, M Muneeb; Baeder, James D.The performance of a wind turbine and its efficiency majorly depends on wind-to-rotor efficiency. The aerodynamic design of the wind turbine blades using high-fidelity tools such as adjoint-computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is accurate but computationally expensive. It becomes impractical when the number of design variables increases for multidisciplinary optimization (MDO). Low-fidelity tools are computationally cheaper but are not accurate, especially in regions of adverse pressure gradient and reverse flows. Surrogate modeling has been used in many aerodynamic problems. We develop and apply a recent architecture of the deep learning module, tandem neural networks (T-NNs) for the inverse design of wind turbine airfoils. The T-NNs trained on CFD data for fully turbulent cases predict not only the performance parameters for the given airfoil geometry but also the airfoil geometry for a given design objective. This framework uses the entire performance polar for inverse design which ensures that the airfoil optimization is not a single-point optimization problem which is essential for practical design problems. The T-NNs are also optimized to include multiple constraints like maximum thickness and trailing edge (TE) thickness which is a novel contribution in the field of inverse design using surrogate models. A statistical analysis is also performed to predict a family of airfoil geometries.Item A Path Dependent Approach for Characterizing the Legal Governance of Autonomous Systems(IEEE, 2022-11-10) Borson, Joseph E.; Xu, HuanAutonomous systems promise significant improvements in many fields. These systems will be subject to legal governance requirements. The literature has largely focused on “autonomous governance” as a framework that is broadly applicable to autonomous devices regardless of the type of system (e.g., aviation or motor vehicles) at issue. While there are regulatory principles applicable to autonomous systems generally, an “autonomy-focused” approach is an inadequate lens to consider the governance of these systems. Rather, because autonomous systems are improvements of currently regulated complex systems, the regulation of autonomous elements will occur within those systems’ preexisting regulatory framework. Accordingly, the nature of future autonomous regulation will likely depend on the preexisting features of that substantive system, rather than on an optimal approach divorced from that history, an attribute known in the social science literature as path dependency. In order to characterize diverse regulated systems with an eye toward assessing future autonomous developments, we develop a framework of regulatory approaches to identify specific features of the preexisting regulatory scheme for a given system. We then analyze that approach by examining three different regulatory regimes (aviation, motor vehicles, and medical devices), across two different continents, and consider how the same type of requirement, e.g., fail-safe systems, can lead to different types of regulations depending on the differing baseline framework.Item Accuracy and Speed Effects of Variable Step Integration for Orbit Determination and Propagation(Univelt, Inc., 2003-08) Berry, Matthew M.; Healy, Liam M.In this paper the fixed step Gauss-Jackson method is compared to two variable step integrators. The first is the variable step, variable order Shampine-Gordon method. The second is s-integration, which may be considered an analytical step regulation. Speed tests are performed for orbit propagation with the integrators set to give equivalent accuracy. The integrators are also tested for orbit determination, to determine the speed benefit of the variable step methods. The tests give an indication of the types of orbits where variable step methods are more efficient than fixed step methods.Item Adaptive magnetorheological fluid energy absorption systems: a review(Institute of Physics, 2024-03-01) Bai, Xianxu 'Frank'; Zhang, Xinchi; Choi, Young; Shou, Mengje; Zhu, Guanghong; Wereey, Norman M.; Wereley, NormanIn the last two decades, magnetorheological (MR) fluids have attracted extensive attention since they can rapidly and continuously control their rheological characteristics by adjusting an external magnetic field. Because of this feature, MR fluids have been applied to various engineering systems. This paper specifically investigates the application of MR fluids in shock mitigation control systems from the aspects of three key technical components: the basic structural design of MR fluid-based energy absorbers (MREAs), the analytical and dynamical model of MREAs, and the control method of adaptive MR shock mitigation control systems. The current status of MR technology in shock mitigation control is presented and analyzed. Firstly, the fundamental mechanical analysis of MREAs is carried out, followed by the introduction of typical MREA configurations. Based on mechanical analysis of MREAs, the structural optimization of MREAs used in shock mitigation control is discussed. The optimization methods are given from perspectives of the design of piston structures, the layout of electromagnetic coil, and the MR fluid gap. Secondly, the methods of damper modeling for MREAs are presented with and without consideration of the inertia effect. Then both the modeling methods and their characteristics are introduced for representative parametric dynamic models, semi-empirical dynamic models, and non-parametric dynamic models. Finally, the control objectives and requirements of the shock mitigation control systems are analyzed, and the current competitive methods for the ideal ‘soft-landing’ control objectives are reviewed. The typical control methods of MR shock mitigation control systems are discussed, and based on this the evaluation indicators of the control performance are summarized.Item Amplitude and wavelength scaling of sinusoidal roughness effects in turbulent channel flow at fixed Reτ=720(Cambridge University Press, 2022-02-28) Ganju, Sparsh; Bailey, Sean C.C.; Brehm, ChristophDirect numerical simulations are performed for incompressible, turbulent channel flow over a smooth wall and different sinusoidal wall roughness configurations at a constant Reτ = 720. Sinusoidal walls are used to study the effects of well-defined geometric features of roughness-amplitude, a, and wavelength, λ, on the flow. The flow in the near-wall region is strongly influenced by both a and λ. Establishing appropriate scaling laws will aid in understanding the effects of roughness and identifying the relevant physical mechanisms. Using inner variables and the roughness function to scale the flow quantities provides support for Townsend’s hypothesis, but inner scaling is unable to capture the flow physics in the near-wall region. We provide modified scaling relations considering the dynamics of the shear layer and its interaction with the roughness. Although not a particularly surprising observation, this study provides clear evidence of the dependence of flow features on both a and λ. With these relations, we are able to collapse and/or align peaks for some flow quantities and, thus, capture the effects of surface roughness on turbulent flows even in the near-wall region. The shear-layer scaling supports the hypothesis that the physical mechanisms responsible for turbulent kinetic energy production in turbulent flows over rough walls are greatly influenced by the shear layer and its interaction with the roughness elements. Finally, a semiempirical model is developed to predict the contribution of pressure and skin friction drag on the roughness element based purely on its geometric parameters and the corresponding shear-layer velocity scale.Item Analysis of Pneumatic Artificial Muscles and the Inelastic Braid Assumption(MDPI, 2022-08-04) Chambers, Jonathan M.; Wereley, Norman M.Pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) are becoming an increasingly popular form of soft actuator due to their unique actuation characteristics. The creation of accurate PAM actuation models is important for their successful implementation. However, PAM studies often employ actuation models that use simplifying assumptions which make the models easier to formulate and use, but at the cost of reduced accuracy. One of the most commonly used assumptions, the inelastic braid assumption, suggests that the braid does not stretch, and therefore would not affect its geometry or actuation force. Although this assumption has often been cited as a likely source of model error, its use has persevered for decades due to researchers’ inability to directly measure the effects of braid elasticity. The recent development of a photogrammetric method to accurately measure PAM geometry now enables this analysis. This study seeks to assess the current default adoption of the inelastic braid assumption in PAM models by attempting to quantify the braid elasticity effects. This research finds that current models that use the inelastic braid assumption can underestimate PAM diameter by as much as 30%, and overestimate actuation force by as much as 70%. These results show that braid elasticity can have a substantial effect on the geometry and actuation force of PAMs, and demonstrates that the inelastic braid assumption may not be a suitable universal assumption for PAM modeling and analyses, especially when low-stiffness braid materials are used.Item Analyzing Mistuning of Bladed Disks by Symmetry and Reduced-Order Areodynamic Modeling(American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2003-03) Shapiro, Benjamin; Willcox, KarenThe mistuned behavior of bladed disks is analyzed and optimized using an unsteady, transonic, computational fluid dynamic model (CFD). This result is enabled by the integration of two frameworks: the first is based on symmetry arguments and an eigenvalue/vector perturbation scheme, while the second is a reduction technique based on the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). The first framework reduces the complexity of the problem, reveals engineering trade offs and suggests the existence of an intentional robust mistuning which improves both stability and forced response with respect to random variations in blade parameters. The second framework permits the reduction of state-of-the-art computational fluid dynamic codes to reduced-order models, which capture the accuracy of the original simulation but fit within the mistuning analysis framework. Together, these methodologies allow the analysis of a transonic, bladed disk with stiffness mistuning (see Fig. 1).Moreover, because of the low order of the aeroelasticmodel, a robust control¹ uncertainty analysis can be used to prove that the intentional mistuning suggested by the symmetry analysis framework is indeed robust. Hence this paper contains the first rigorous demonstration that intentional mistuning can robustly improve both the stability and forced response for a model that includes sophisticated aerodynamic effects.Item Anelastic Behavior in Filled Elastomers Under Harmonic Loading Using Distributed Rate-Dependent Elasto-Slide Elements(INTECH, 2012-09-12) Hu, Wei; Wereley, Norman M.Item Arbitrary Steering of Multiple Particles Independently in an Electro-Osmotically Driven Microfluidic System(IEEE, 2006-07) Shapiro, Benjamin; Chaudhary, SatejWe demonstrate how to use feedback control of microflows to steer multiple particles independently in planar microfluidic systems driven by electro-osmotic actuation. This technique enables the handling of biological materials, such as cells, bacteria, DNA, and drug packets, in a hand-held format using simple and easy-to-fabricate actuators. The feedback loop consists of a vision system which identifies the positions of the particles in real-time, a control algorithm that computes the actuator (electrode) inputs based on information received from the vision system, and a set of electrodes (actuators) that create the required flow through electro-osmotic forces to steer all the particles along their desired trajectories and correct for particle position errors and thermal noise. Here, we focus on the development of control algorithms to achieve the steering of particles: vision system implementation, fabrication of devices, and experimental validation is addressed in other publications. In particular, steering of a single (yeast cell) particle has been demonstrated experimentally in our prior research and we have recently demonstrated experimental steering of three particles independently. In this paper, we develop the control algorithms for steering multiple particles independently and we validate our control techniques using simulations with realistic sources of initial position errors and thermal noise. In this study, we assume perfect measurement and actuation.Item Automatic Rendering of Astrodynamics Expressions for Efficient Evaluation(American Astronautical Society, 1998) Healy, Liam M.; Travisano, Jeffrey J.In this paper, we describe the automatic rendering of expressions computed using symbolic manipulation. Computations from astrodynamics frequently can be put in a fixed hierarchy of polynomials and Fourier series. Once in this form, FORTRAN subprograms can be generated automatically in a form that lends itself to numerical evaluation. The goal of the current work is to present an approach for using symbolic manipulation techniques to produce a Fortran representation of the normalized Hamiltonian and other supporting equations representing as many of the actual physical effects on satellites as possible.Item Bending Properties of an Extensile Fluidic Artificial Muscle(Frontiers, 2022-04-13) Garbulinski, Jacek; Wereley, Norman M.Low stiffness, large stroke, and axial force capabilities make Extensile Fluidic Artificial Muscles (EFAMs) a feasible soft actuator for continuum soft robots. EFAMs can be used to construct soft actuated structures that feature large deformation and enable soft robots to access large effective workspaces. Although FAM axial properties have been well studied, their bending behavior is not well characterized in the literature. Static and dynamic bending properties of a cantilevered EFAM specimen were investigated over a pressure range of 5–100 psi. The static properties were then estimated using an Euler-Bernoulli beam model and discrete elastic rod models. The experiments provided data for the determination of bending stiffness, damping ratio, and natural frequency of the tested specimen. The bending stiffness and the damping ratio were found to change fourfold over the pressure range. Experimentally validated bending properties of the EFAM presented insights into structural and control considerations of soft robots. Future work will utilize the data and models obtained in this study to predict the behavior of an EFAM-actuated continuum robot carrying payloads.Item Biorthogonal decomposition of the disturbance flow field generated by particle impingement on a hypersonic boundary layer(Cambridge University Press, 2023-08-10) A. Al Hasnine, S.; Russo, V.; Tumin, A.; Brehm, C.The disturbance flow field in a hypersonic boundary layer excited by particle impingement was investigated with a focus on the first stage of the laminar-to-turbulent transition process, namely the receptivity process. A previously validated direct numerical simulation approach adopting disturbance flow tracking is used to simulate the particle-induced transition process. Particle impingement generates a highly complex disturbance flow field that can be characterised by a wide range of frequencies and wavenumbers. After providing some insight about the spectral characteristics of the disturbance flow field in the frequency and wavenumber domains, biorthogonal decomposition is employed to reveal the composition of the disturbance flow field consisting of different continuous and discrete eigenmodes that are triggered through particle impingement. The disturbance flow characteristics for different frequency and wavenumber pairs are discussed where large contributions in the disturbance flow spectrum are observed in the vicinity of the impingement location. A significant amount of the disturbance energy is diverted into the free stream leading to large coefficients of projection for the slow and fast acoustic branches while contributions to the entropy and vorticity branches are negligible. In addition to the continuous acoustic spectra, the first-, second- and other higher-order Mack modes are activated and provide large contributions to the disturbance flow field inside the boundary layer. Finally, it is demonstrated that the disturbance flow field in the vicinity of the impingement location can be reconstructed with a maximum relative error of 2.3 % by employing a theoretical biorthogonal eigenfunction system expansion and by considering contributions from fast and slow acoustic waves and at most four discrete modes only.Item Characterization and Analysis of Extensile Fluidic Artificial Muscles(MDPI, 2021-01-30) Garbulinski, Jacek; Balasankula, Sai C.; Wereley, Norman M.Extensile fluidic artificial muscles (EFAMs) are soft actuators known for their large ranges of extension, low weight, and blocked forces comparable to those of pneumatic cylinders. EFAMs have yet to be studied in a way that thoroughly focuses on their manufacturing, experimental characterization, and modeling. A fabrication method was developed for production of two EFAMs. The quasi-static axial force response of EFAMs to varying displacement was measured by testing two specimens under isobaric conditions over a pressure range of 103.4–517.1 kPa (15–75 psi) with 103.4 kPa (15 psi) increments. The muscles were characterized by a blocked force of 280 N and a maximum stroke of 98% at 517.1 kPa (75 psi). A force-balance model was used to analyze EFAM response. Prior work employing the force-balance approach used hyper-elastic constitutive models based on polynomial expressions. In this study, these models are validated for EFAMs, and new constitutive models are proposed that better represent the measured stress values of rubber as a function of strain. These constitutive models are compared in terms of accuracy when estimating pressure-dependent stress–strain relationships of the bladder material. The analysis demonstrates that the new hyper-elastic stress models have an error 5% smaller than models previously employed for EFAMs for the same number of coefficients. Finally, the analysis suggests that the new stress functions have smaller errors than the polynomial stress model with the same number of coefficients, guarantee material stability, and are more conservative about the stress values for strains outside of the testing range.Item Characterization of Magnetorheological Impact Foams in Compression(MDPI, 2024-06-14) Choi, Young; Wereley, Norman M.; Wereley, Norman M.This study focuses on the development and compressive characteristics of magnetorheo- logical elastomeric foam (MREF) as an adaptive cushioning material designed to protect payloads from a broader spectrum of impact loads. The MREF exhibits softness and flexibility under light compressive loads and low strains, yet it becomes rigid in response to higher impact loads and ele- vated strains. The synthesis of MREF involved suspending micron-sized carbonyl Fe particles in an uncured silicone elastomeric foam. A catalyzed addition crosslinking reaction, facilitated by platinum compounds, was employed to create the rapidly setting silicone foam at room temperature, simplify- ing the synthesis process. Isotropic MREF samples with varying Fe particle volume fractions (0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10%) were prepared to assess the effect of particle concentrations. Quasi-static and dynamic compressive stress tests on the MREF samples placed between two multipole flexible strip magnets were conducted using an Instron servo-hydraulic test machine. The tests provided measurements of magnetic field-sensitive compressive properties, including compression stress, energy absorption capability, complex modulus, and equivalent viscous damping. Furthermore, the experimental investigation also explored the influence of magnet placement directions (0◦ and 90◦) on the compressive properties of the MREFs.Item Close Conjunction Detection on Parallel Computer(American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1995-07) Healy, LiamClose conjunction detection is the task of finding which satellites will come within a given distance of other satellites. The algorithms described here are implemented on the Connection Machine (CM) in a program called CM-COMBO. It will find close conjunctions of satellites over a time range for one, a few, or all satellites against the original or another catalog and works with an arbitrary propagator. The problem of comparing an entire catalog against itself is beyond the computing power of current serial machines. This program does not prefilter any orbits and does not make assumptions about the type of orbit (that it be nearly circular, for instance). This paper describes the algorithm for this computation, the implementation on the CM, and resuls of several studies using this program.Item Comparison Of Accuracy Assessment Techniques For Numerical Integration(Univelt, Inc., 2003-02) Berry, Matt; Healy, LiamKnowledge of accuracy of numerical integration is important for composing an overall numerical error budget; in orbit determination and propagation for space surveillance, there is frequently a computation time-accuracy tradeoff that must be balanced. There are several techniques to assess the accuracy of a numerical integrator. In this paper we compare some of those techniques: comparison with two-body results, with step-size halving, with a higher-order integrator, using a reverse test, and with a nearby exactly integrable solution (Zadunaisky's technique). Selection of different kinds of orbits for testing is important, and an RMS error ratio may be constructed to condense results into a compact form. Our results show that step- size halving and higher-order testing give consistent results, that the reverse test does not, and that Zadunaisky's technique performs well with a single-step integrator, but that more work is needed to implement it with a multi-step integrator.Item Comparison of MSIS and Jacchia atmospheric density models for orbit determination and propagation(Univelt, Inc., 2003-02) Akins, Keith A.; Healy, Liam M.; Coffey, Shannon L.; Picone, J. MichaelTwo atmospheric density model families that are commonly chosen for orbit determination and propagation, Jacchia and MSIS, are compared for accuracy. The Jacchia 70 model, the MSISE-90 model, and the NRLMSISE-00 model may each be used to determine orbits over fitspans of several days and then to propagate forward. With observations kept over the propagation period, residuals may be computed and the accuracy of each model evaluated. We have performed this analysis for over 4000 cataloged satellites with perigee below 1000km for September-October 1999, and the 60 HASDM calibration satellites with a large observation set for February 2001. The purpose of this study is to form a picture of the relative merits of the drag models in a comprehensive view, using all satellites in a manner consistent with the operational practice of US space surveillance centers. A further goal is to refine this knowledge to understand the orbital parameter regions where one of the models may be consistently superior.Item Compressibility effects on Reynolds stress amplification and shock structure in shock–isotropic turbulence interactions(Cambridge University Press, 2023-02-27) Grube, Nathan E.; Martín, M. PinoRecent direct numerical simulation studies of canonical shock–isotropic turbulence interactions (SITIs) in the highly compressible regime exhibit streamwise Reynolds stress amplification that is significantly higher in some cases than in previous studies; an explanation is offered based on a relatively high Mach number combined with significant dilatational energy in the incident flow. Some cases exhibit a loss of amplification that is associated with a highly perturbed shock structure as the flow parameters approach the threshold between the wrinkled and broken shock regimes. The shock structure perturbations due to the highly compressible incident turbulence match those proposed by Donzis (Phys. Fluids, vol. 24, 2012, 126101) relatively well, but due to the presence of thermodynamic fluctuations in addition to velocity fluctuations in the incident flow, we propose a generalized parametrization based on the root-mean-square Mach number fluctuation in place of the turbulence Mach number. This is found to improve the collapse of the shock structure data, suggesting that the wrinkled–broken shock regime threshold determined previously for vortical turbulence (Donzis, Phys. Fluids, vol. 24, 2012, 126101; Larsson et al., J. Fluid Mech., vol. 717, 2013, pp. 293–321) can be applied to more general isotropic inflow fields using the proposed parametrization.Item Computation of error effects in nonlinear Hamiltonian systems using Lie algebraic methods(American Institute of Physics, 1992-06) Healy, Liam; Dragt, Alex; Gjaja, IvanThere exist Lie algebraic methods for obtaining transfer maps around any given trajectory of a Hamiltonian system. This paper describes an iterative procedure for finding transfer maps around the same trajectory when the Hamiltonian is perturbed by small linear terms. Such terms often result when an actual system deviates from an ideal one due to errors. Two examples from accelerator physics are worked out. Comparisons with numerical computations, and in simple cases exact analytical calculations, demonstrate the validity of the procedure.