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- ItemA Study of International Farm Youth Exchange Delegates Who Visited Latin America(1960) Blum, Lee Ann Leet; Wiggin, Gladys A.; Education; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, MD)A. Statement of Problem The problem of this thesis is to study the nature and prediction of adjustment to foreign culture of 24 American International Farm Youth Exchange delegates. Specifically, this thesis is designed to answer the following questions: 1. What was the nature of adjustment or the 24 subjects as determined through: a. An analysis of a questionnaire administered on return from the foreign visit. b. An analysis of correspondence during the foreign visit. 2. Could the nature or the adjustment have been predicted prior to the foreign visit by materials available in: a. Application form for foreign visits. b. Supplementary biographical data. A secondary purpose of this thesis is to review the literature relating to technical and/or student exchange programs of: 1. Foreign nationals in the United States. 2. Americans in other countries. B. Procedures 1. Selection of the Group from which Population Was Drawn A group of 1010 IFYE delegates who have visited a total of 59 different countries and Puerto Rico was the population from which the sample was drawn. Due to the variety of country cultures represented and the world coverage, it was decided to simplify and centralize the population. The 133 delegates who visited the 18 Latin American countries were selected to represent the group. Latin American countries were selected because of their similar cultural and religious background. Since information on file was to be used in the study, it was essential to select only those del egates with comparable data. Comparable data were available for delegate participants during the years 1955-57. As so limited, the group numbered 64. 2. Criterion for Selecting Population The next step was to determine whe ther the 64 subjects could be categorized at the outset into most and least adjusted to the foreign culture visited, on the basis of material available after return. The answer to question number 19 on the Individual Report Form was selected as the item to be used for categorizing. For categorizing question 19, eight individuals were asked to serve as raters. Four raters had only a slight knowledge of the IFYE program and four raters were past participants in the IFYE program. Each rater was given the group of 64 Individual Report Forms and asked to categorize question 19 in one of three categories. These categories were: (1) Least Adjusted, (2) Medially Adjusted, and (3) Most Adjusted. No criteria were given the rater to influence his placement. The categorizing was used as an attempt to see if a significant pattern could be recognized. For the purpose of this study, it was decided that the following method be used in classifying subjects: a. Each subject must appear in the least adjusted or in the most adjusted category a minimum of four times (which means that at least half of the raters thought that the subject was either least adjusted or most adjusted). b. The subject was not to appear in the least adjusted category if classified in the most adjusted category, and vice versa. c. The subject might appear in the medially adjusted category and still be used for the most or the least adjusted category if qualifications for step (a) listed here were fulfilled. After all raters had completed their categorizing, tabulations were made and it was found that 11 subjects in the least adjusted category and 13 subjects in the most adjusted category could be used in this study. Complete categorizing of the 64 subjects can be found in Appendix A. 3. Procedures for Analysis of Data a. Nature of Adjustment Question number 19 of the Individual Report Form was used to categorize the subjects into groups of most adjusted and least adjusted. The question reads as follows: "Of all things that were new and different to you, which were difficult or disagreeable to adjust to?" The Individual Report Form appears in Appendix B. The 24 subjects' responses to the question appear in Appendix G. Answers were available to all other questions on the report and an analysis will be made in this study of all questions relating to the nature of adjustment. Correspondence received from the delegates while visiting in the foreign country was available in individual files. An analysis of the correspondence indicated that delegates report a variety of news. The nature of news reported is available for study in relationship to the delegates' adjustment in the foreign culture. b. Prediction of Adjustment Adjustment while in the host country is of special interest to the officials of the IFYE program. To be able to predict adjustment of a delegate to his host country before actually participating in the program would be of great value to IFYE. This study is designed to investigate available pre-participation background information on each subject. The available information on file relates to: (1) Delegate Application Form (to be found in Appendix c) and (2) Delegate Biographical Form (to be found in Appendix D). The purposes of this study are to investigate the background information listed above and to test for significant relationship of nature of adjustment in the foreign country.
- ItemThe Ability of Maryland English Teachers to Rate Holistically The Quality of Student Explanatory Writing(1988) Peiffer, Ronald Aaron; Jantz, Richard K.; Education; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of Maryland English teachers in using the Maryland Writing Test scoring criteria to place modified holistic ratings on student explanatory writing . The performance of eight expert raters, who had previously demonstrated 80% rating accuracy in training, was compared with the performance of six novice raters, who had not been required to demonstrate accuracy in their training. Accuracy was determined by analyzing error frequency and patterns in error size and direction. Scores were further analyzed to determine writing features, both internal and external to the Maryland Writing Test scoring criteria, that served as predictors of scores assigned by the two groups of raters. Findings indicate that novice and expert raters were approximately 60% accurate in score assignments, with no significant difference in the accuracy level of the two groups. While scores assigned by both groups correlated highly, the size of their errors correlated moderately. Novice rater errors were more often one or more score points below the certified scores that compositions should have received while expert rater errors were equally distributed between overassessments and underassessments of writing quality. The results of stepwise regressions showed certified scores as well as scores assigned by the two groups of raters to be predicted by the number of words in the composition and by the frequency of syntax errors. While 39% of the variance in certified scores was explained by the number of words, around 50% of the variances in novice and expert scores were explained by the same feature. Likewise, syntax error frequencies were slightly stronger predictors of rater scores than of certified scores, contributing 11 % and 17% respectively to the variance in expert and novice rater scores. Of five features associated with the scoring guide, content was the strongest predictor of certified scores, explaining 99.4% of the variance in scores. However, organization was the strongest predictor of rater scores, explaining around 80% of the variance in scores.
- ItemAcademic and Social Integration of Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students in a Carnegie Research-I University(2003-12-05) Liversidge, Anne Gray; Mawhinney, Hanne B; Education Policy, and LeadershipOf the small number of deaf and hard-of-hearing students who enroll in mainstream colleges and universities, between 60% and 80% do not persist to attain a college degree. Reasons for the high attrition rate are several, including academic and social difficulties and dissatisfactory experience with college life. This study uses case study methods to illustrate the complex phenomenon of how deaf and hard-of-hearing students are integrated academically and socially into college life at a Carnegie Research-I university. Data gathered from surveys, open-ended interviews, and focus groups are analyzed and used to describe the perspectives of 10 study participants, five undergraduates and five graduates. Documentary evidence and theoretical sampling are other methods used. Data were collected during three semesters. The findings showed that when deaf and hard-of-hearing students are positively integrated into college life, they are more likely to maintain a high level of commitment to college and persist. Pre- and within-college factors that assist the students in their dynamic decision-making process of enrolling and staying in a mainstream university include the following factors: previous mainstream experience, development of study skills and support systems, ability to self-advocate, and level of commitment to attaining a college degree. Additional influence on persistence was the availability of support from the office of disabled student services (DSS) through services such as sign language interpreters and note-takers. The findings are compared to existing literature and theory and are used to raise additional questions for further study. Recommendations for colleges and universities as well as policy-makers working with this student population are provided.
- ItemACADEMIC SPOKEN ENGLISH STRATEGY USE OF NON-NATIVE ENGLISH SPEAKING GRADUATE STUDENTS(2011) Ma, Rui; Sullivan, Denis F; Oxford, Rebecca L; Curriculum and Instruction; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)Currently there is a lack of investigation into the language learning and language use strategies of non-native English speaking students at the graduate level. Existing literature of the strategy use of the "more successful" language learners are predominantly based on student data at the secondary school or college levels. This dissertation research project will use a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods ("mixed-methods" research) to examine academic English listening and speaking strategy use patterns of non-native English speaking (NNES) graduate students and also to investigate those students' relevant metacognitive thinking and its impact on their strategy use. First, this research project will investigate what kinds of strategies are being employed and how they are being employed to help those students achieve communicative competence in oral academic English. Descriptive statistics based on a large-scale database of questionnaire responses will be provided. Secondly, this project will investigate what factors have significant effects on the strategy use of this particular student group. Statistical tools such as the multiple regressions and path analysis are used to determine the effects of gender, academic fields, regions of origin, degree level, and other factors. Thirdly, this project examines students' metacognitive thinking and how it impacts their strategy use. The guiding theory related to this line of investigation is that students' metacognitive thinking is closely related to their strategy use patterns. Finally, this project also aims to validate a new assessment tool (a questionnaire) for investigating non-native graduate students' academic English listening and speaking strategy use. Results of the study are expected to eventually help build a descriptive model of listening and speaking strategy use of NNES graduate students and will inform learner-centered instructional design and curriculum development. The ultimate benefit will also be to help many NNES graduate students achieve at a much higher level in graduate school because of their improved English listening and speaking skills.
- ItemThe acculturation of adult African refugee language learners in Israel: an ethnographic study(2012) Blake III, Charles Carlos; Lin, Jing; Education Policy, and Leadership; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)The number of refugees from Africa seeking asylum in Israel has recently skyrocketed, raising issues as to how to integrate them into Israeli society. Education is one of the mediums being used to encourage the cultural integration and inclusion of the refugees into Israeli society; very little is known, however, about how Africans are acculturating or whether language education is helping with this process. In particular, I use Berry's model of acculturation and Ogbu's cultural model as lenses through which the acculturation of refugees can be understood. In order to provide an answer to these questions, I conducted an ethnographic study examining the acculturation of adult African refugees participating in a language program in Tel Aviv. I utilized criterion-based sampling to select 8 student participants for this study. Data collection consisted of interviews with student-participants, interviews with teacher participants and document review. Data analysis entailed the coding and categorization of data elicited from data collection. Results suggest that participants exhibited the characteristics of immigrants employing a separation/segregation acculturation strategy according to Berry's model. Most participants also have the characteristics of what Ogbu calls involuntary migrants. Instead of facilitating host country cultural understanding or participation, higher language proficiency was associated with more negative perceptions of Israelis and Israeli society.
- ItemACTIVATING TECHNOCAPITAL: A CASE STUDY OF MARGINALIZED MIDDLE SCHOOL YOUTHS’ EXPERIENCES WITH INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY.(2023) Crenshaw, Kenyatta Lynn; Elby, Andrew; Croninger, Robert; Education Policy, and Leadership; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)This case study explores ways that socio-cultural and environmental factors influence the technological experiences of marginalized, underrepresented youth at an urban summer learning program, which supports Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) and environmental sustainability education. The study specifically explores the socio-cultural and environmental aspects of students’ experience with digital literacy/ information communication technology (computer based and mobile technologies), and the pedagogical practices applied by educators (teachers, family members, and peers) that influence the students’ experiences with digital learning over the period of eight weeks. The principal focus is on eight middle school students ranging from nine to twelve years of age who reside in an urban environment with their parents/caregivers. In efforts to better understand the experiences of the students, the focus is shared (but not centered) on the parents/caregivers, educators, and volunteer community members who contribute to the students’ perception and use of technology. A major finding of the study is that community-embedded resources, what have been referred to in the literature as funds of knowledge or community cultural wealth, can play a positive role in shaping students’ experiences with technology, especially when students, parents, and educators use those resources to create culturally relevant learning experiences that contribute to building technocapital. In general, the findings address beliefs and contextual ecological factors that contribute to the appearance and activation of social and cultural capital in the technological practices of marginalized youth. The accounts of youth and parent perspectives uniquely display the ways the funds of knowledge and community cultural wealth act as social and cultural capital. The participant stories present how the networks of the participants’ parents and community contribute to social connectivity and the awareness of civic participation in both the exosystem and mesosystem of their lives. Overall, the findings present an evidence-based contribution to further support the need to understand and advocate for funding and the development of policy to address: 1) racial/ethnic and socioeconomic differences in education; 2) the positive processes by which cultural resources in the communities of marginalized youth are converted into social and educational advantages; and 3) increasing knowledge and utility of the various forms of capital embedded in moderate-to-low income, non-majority communities that play a positive role in youths’ motivation to utilize ICT and develop digital literacy skills that increase productivity and achievement. Keywords: underrepresented youth, supplemental learning program, information communication technology, digital learning, social capital, cultural capital, funds of knowledge, community cultural wealth.
- ItemTHE ADAPTIVE CHALLENGES OF COLLABORATIVE LEADERS IN A PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP(2011) Queen, JaNay Yvonne; Davis, Thomas E; Education Policy, and Leadership; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)The purpose of this dissertation was to determine whether senior leaders of a public-private partnership exemplified the key dimensions of collaboration, recognized the challenges that shaped their experience, and thrived as a partnership. Through qualitative methods and case study design, the current study provides an examination of the collaborative process of a five-member senior leadership board. Semi-structured interviews, document analysis, and a survey with 44 close-ended and five open-ended questions were used to collect data. Three major theoretical perspectives were used to analyze the data: (1) the process of collaboration; (2) the key dimensions of collaboration (governance, administration, organizational autonomy, mutuality, and norms); (3) and the adaptive challenges of leaders (Gray, 1989; Gray & Wood, 1991a, b; Thomson, 2001; Heifetz, 1994). Findings indicated that leaders did exemplify collaboration to some extent, and most certainly recognized adaptive challenges. However, they were unable to recover from the impact of those challenges, which ultimately prevented them from thriving as a partnership. On the other hand, evidence demonstrated that each leader was able to leave the partnership with valuable lessons and insights to support her personal transformation as a leader. While collaboration is a welcomed way of working among organization leaders, this study demonstrates there are criteria that must be in place in order to be successful and effective when collaborating, as the absence of these criteria can lead to problems. Thus, recommendations for practice and further research are presented.
- ItemADDRESSING THE DISPROPORTIONALITY OF BLACK/AFRICAN AMERICAN STUDENTS IN ADVANCED PLACEMENT (AP) CLASSES(2022) DiFato, John Paul; Imig, David; Education Policy, and Leadership; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)Data at the national, state, and local levels all indicate disproportionately low enrollment of Black/African American students in Advanced Placement (AP) classes at the high school level. Black/African American students are missing out on educational opportunities and access to an equitable education by not participating in AP classes in high school. One method for high schools to address this issue is to explore the processes in place for recommending/selecting students for AP classes. The purpose of this study was to develop and pilot a talent-spotting tool using student data for teachers and school counselors to use in the AP course recommendation process. Specifically, this protocol was developed to identify more students, especially Black/African American students, whose data indicated that they might be ready for AP coursework. The researcher developed the talent-spotting tool, and the algorithm used to process the data, and tested its effectiveness in identifying students who should be recommended for AP classes. The researcher employed the following methodology for the study: (a) developed a data-based talent-spotting tool protocol draft; (b) obtained input from potential users regarding current course recommendation practices (including the use of AP Potential) and their perceptions of the talent-spotting tool and its potential usefulness via an anonymous, web-based survey; and (c) piloted the talent-spotting tool and compared the results with course recommendations based on SY1819 AP Potential data and with the SY1819 actual course recommendations. Based on survey responses from potential users, the majority indicated they want a process that is simple to use and can be a portion of the course recommendation process, but not the entire process. Participants appreciated the objectivity that the talent-spotting tool brought to the course recommendation process, but many were not ready to completely give up on the subjective human factors that are involved with course recommendations. Furthermore, the talent-spotting tool accurately identified students who were recommended for AP courses. But, more importantly, the talent-spotting tool identified more students who were not recommended for AP courses but who have the aptitude to succeed in those courses. In fact, the talent-spotting tool identified a higher proportion of Black/African American students than white students. The adoption of this talent-spotting tool as part of the course recommendation process has the potential to directly impact the disproportionate representation of Black/African American students in AP courses.
- ItemADOLESCENTS' CONSTRUCTIVELY RESPONSIVE READING STRATEGY USE IN A CRITICAL INTERNET READING TASK(2011) Cho, Byeong-Young; AFFLERBACH, PETER P; Curriculum and Instruction; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)The goal of this study was to examine types and patterns of reading strategies that proficient adolescent readers used while reading on the Internet. Informed by research related to reading comprehension, intertextuality, and new literacies, I drew upon the model of Constructively Responsive Reading that had evolved from print reading to Internet reading (Afflerbach & Cho, 2009; Pressley & Afflerbach, 1995). The model offered an analytical tool to construct descriptions of the complexity of use of the four general types of strategies in Internet contexts: Realizing and Constructing Potential Texts to Read, Identifying and Learning Text Content, Monitoring, and Evaluation. Seven highly proficient adolescent readers (Mean Age = 17.5) individually performed Internet reading, with a goal to create a critical question about their self- selected controversial topic across two 45-minute sessions: Open Website Searching and Focused Website Learning. I used multiple sources to triangulate complementary data to infer participants' Internet reading strategy use. Participants' think-aloud verbal reports were synchronized with their reader-computer interactions recorded in the computer. These real-time strategy data were complemented by other contextual data (e.g., pre-/post-reading interviews, participant-generated critical questions). I integrated these data into Internet Reading Strategy Matrices of the individual participants, which were analyzed, both qualitatively and quantitatively. During the entire course of data analysis, I constantly referenced the model of Constructively Responsive Reading with the four strategy categories. My data analyses afforded detailed descriptions of diverse constructively responsive reading strategies in Internet contexts and dynamic patterns of such reading strategy use. Grounded-analysis of data resulted in the identification of an array of reading strategies and many instances of strategy interplay among the four strategy categories. Chi-squared analysis of aggregated strategy data revealed the goal-directed nature of strategy use, as participants' use of these four types of strategies was associated with two different session tasks. Also, analysis of the processing chains visualizing the flow of strategy use indicated differences in the performances of Internet reading strategy use among the participants and their distinctive modes of Internet reading. Overall, my study supported the theoretical model of Constructively Responsive Reading, with empirical data that described diversity and patterns of constructively responsive reading strategies in Internet contexts. The complexity of Internet reading was discussed with regard to constructively responsive reading that coordinates different roles and functions of the four general types of strategies.
- ItemAdoption of Restorative Justice Practices in Student Conduct(2017) Kimball, Heather Renee; Espino Lira, Michelle M; Education Policy, and Leadership; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)This study examines the growing trend of colleges and universities adopting restorative justice practices in student conduct. Employing a diffusion of innovations framework and a multiple case study approach, the author offers an in-depth understanding of the decision-making processes and influences at two institutions that have adopted restorative justice in their student conduct practices. The findings of this study have implications for advocates of restorative justice seeking to understand how colleges and universities are deciding to adopt restorative justice and what conditions affect that decision, as well as for individuals who are assessing whether their institution is a good fit for adopting restorative justice principles. The study also contributes more broadly to diffusion of innovations literature through its application of the theory to organizations, specifically higher education institutions.
- ItemAdult Education in the Social Planning of a Civic Organization(1934) Hostetler, Alice Watts; Cotterman, H.F.; Education; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)This study deals with adult education in the social planning of a civic organization. The problem is to determine the nature and extent of adult education which is the outgrowth of community planning. The study is made in order to assemble and present in usable form facts which may assist persons promoting adult education, program makers in adult organizations, and community leaders in one line or another of community betterment. More specifically, it is the purpose of the study to examine in detail the work of the Montgomery County Civic Federation of Montgomery County, Maryland, in order to discover the higher forms of adult education of informal types which accrue from the several activities of a single civic organization of recognized influence in a rural-suburban area, as these are manifest in the records of the federation and its member associations, and in changes and developments in this area. The activities of the federation, as recorded in the minutes over eight years of its existence, were examined in detail and classified under five major subjects, each having many minor topics. The major divisions are used as chapter titles and the findings, which include studies made by the federation and developments within the county, are presented under these subjects to reveal the amount and kind of adult education in social planning. The study begins with a description of the locale, Montgomery County, Maryland, which includes its location, history, governmental structure, and population. In Chapter II., the aims, history, structure, and functioning of the Montgomery County Civic Federation are described. The facts revealed by this survey of the eight-year program of the federation and of the area it influences are classified and presented as five chapters dealing with adult education in Public Welfare, County Projects, Public Schools, Government, and Outside the County. The study ends with a summary based on the findings.
- ItemADVANCING A CULTURE OF HIGH EXPECTATIONS: ACADEMIC PRESS, SCHOOL CONDITIONS AND STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT(2012) Eubanks, Shyrelle Nicole; Hawley, Willis D; Curriculum and Instruction; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)This study explores the extent to which an ethos of high performance for all students--also known as "Academic Press"--correlates with school conditions and student achievement in schools that have taken the National Education Association's (NEA) Keys to Excellence in Your School (KEYS) Survey. This study uses KEYS survey results from over 300 schools to examine how Academic Press relates to school characteristics and conditions by conducting multiple linear regression analyses. Results indicate significant correlations between Academic Press and certain school conditions. Regression results identified Effectiveness and Supportiveness of Leadership and Frequency and Focus of Professional Development as the most significant predictors of the two dimensions of Academic Press - School Academic Ethos and Teacher Press. The model is statistically significant (p <.001) accounting for 75% of the variance in School Academic Ethos and 51% of the variance for Teacher Press (p < .001). Elementary schools were more likely to have high School Academic Ethos (â =.243, p <.001) and Teacher Press (â = -.365). The Percent of ESL population (â = -.002, p < .05) also had a small, statistically significant negative influence on School Academic Ethos only. Teacher Empowerment had a modest relationship to Teacher Press only (â=.156, p<.05). Finally, School Size, Teacher Experience and Teacher Stability were found to have no significant relationship to School Academic Ethos or Teacher Press.
- ItemAGAINST ALL ODDS: ACCESS AND ACHIEVEMENT OF AFRICAN AMERICAN ADOLESCENT MALES IN ADVANCED SECONDARY MATHEMATICS(2019) McCarter, Darrian Tyron; Brantlinger, Andrew; Curriculum and Instruction; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)Adopting a critical race theory stance, this study examined the intersectionality of race, class, and gender and their influence on the educational outcomes of six African American males, who against the odds, have demonstrated success in advance secondary mathematics. Consistent with critical race theory, the purpose of the study was to create counter narratives that push back against dominant narratives about the academic abilities of African American males, specifically in mathematics. This study explored the ways in which this historically marginalized student group self-identify and communicate their social, cultural, emotional, and academic experiences and the development of strategies to navigate environments in which they are underrepresented. At the broadest level, the African American male participants individually and consistently addressed the following four themes in their semi structured interviews: (1) inequitable [institutional] practices rationalized by the dominant narrative, (2) caring and influential relationships, (3) early access to enriched and accelerated mathematics curricula, and (4) intrinsic and extrinsic motivators for success. First, the participants collectively spoke of a range of racialized and sometimes gendered barriers (e.g., teachers and peers who doubted the abilities of Black learners) that they faced as African American male learners of mathematics. Second, and in response to these racialized-gendered barriers, they each reported drawing on relationships and positive interactions with their parents, teachers, peers, and African American male role models. Third, all six participants communicated the value added of exposure to high quality schooling experiences to include early identification as strong mathematics students, enrollment in specialized schools and programs, early exposure to rigorous mathematics content, and active participation in extra/co-curricular opportunities. Fourth, and mediated by their relationships and early exposure to advanced mathematics, they all reported developing intrinsic and extrinsic motivations that sustained their success. In terms of the last point, and in their own ways, they were motivated, in part, to push back on dominant, racist narratives regarding the academic abilities of African American males as they navigated implicit racial bias from their teachers, peers, institutional practices, and the larger society.
- ItemAgainst the Grain: A Study of North Carolina's Plan to Provide College to its Prison Inmates(2008-04-22) Contardo, Jeanne Bayer; Weible, Thomas; Waters, Robert; Education Policy, and Leadership; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)This study uses theories of organizational resiliency and distributed structure to analyze the development and maintenance of postsecondary correctional education (PSCE) in North Carolina. The study uses bounded case study methodology to focus on the partnership between the North Carolina Department of Correction (NCDOC) and the North Carolina Community College System (NCCCS) that provides PSCE to over one-third of all inmates in North Carolina. First, the study examines why North Carolina expanded access to PSCE at a time when other states restricted access. The findings indicate two reasons: (1) legislative (House Bill 50) and legal factors (Small v. Martin) mandated that the NCDOC and NCCCS work together to provide PSCE to the incarcerated population, and (2) the state's culture and values emphasize education for everyone, including inmates, helping to develop widespread support for PSCE. Next the study explores how North Carolina currently provides access to PSCE using data acquired from interviews, document review, and direct observation. The two agencies demonstrated a pragmatic approach that emphasized vocational versus academic PSCE, programs that could be completed within the amount of time remaining on a prison sentence, a funding structure that avoids burdensome legislative oversight, and an awareness of the balance between the local level units of the two agencies and the central system offices. The study concludes with an analysis of North Carolina's PSCE using Coutu's (2003) theory of organizational resiliency and Brafman and Beckstrom's (2006) theory of distributed structure and questions whether distributed structure contributes to a better understanding of organizational resiliency. Results indicate that the longevity and breadth of North Carolina's PSCE appear to be a case of organizational resiliency and that characteristics of distributed structure likely contributed to the resiliency of such programming, however the newness of such research indicates a need for further exploration. This study has numerous research and policy implications, and offers guidance for states that would consider expanding their PSCE offerings. The study also identifies multiple directions for further research.
- ItemThe Alignment of eighth-grade mathematics instruction across academic tracks with statewide high stakes tests: Implications for test performance(2003-11-21) Shore, Felice; Campbell, Patricia; Curriculum and InstructionThis study described the nature of the link between the types of instructional strategies employed in different academic tracks of eighth-grade mathematics classrooms and student achievement on a state performance assessment (PA). Survey data was obtained from 51 teachers in one school district who responded to a two-part questionnaire ascertaining teacher background characteristics and instructional strategies. A reform score was calculated that represented the percent of instructional time devoted to teaching strategies consistent with the focus of the PA. All data were analyzed at the class level, specifically examining any notable differences among tracks. Across all teachers, variation in instructional strategies was modest. There were no significant differences between mean reform scores across three courses. Yet, for Algebra II, a significant relationship was found between the amount of reform instruction and achievement on the PA. Overall, however, course level was not found to be a moderator between those two variables. Additionally, a model whereby course level acts as a mediator between reform instruction and student performance was not substantiated by the data. There was an inequitable distribution of teachers with mathematics credentials in the surveyed classrooms, with lower-level courses being taught by teachers with lower certification levels. The finding that credentials influenced achievement above and beyond course level begs further research. Furthermore, how the influences of credentials and pressure from other high-stakes tests manifest themselves in the learning environment would be substantive topics for future studies. An observational component of this study described teaching styles of three teachers with respect to instructional alignment with expectations implied in State Learning Outcomes. Two of the three teachers were judged to have content- and pedagogical content-knowledge deficiencies, limiting their ability to help students learn mathematics with understanding. The third teacher used pedagogical practices more likely to support the goal of students' learning meaningful mathematics with understanding. This study's qualitative component suggests further research examining teacher knowledge of mathematical content and pedagogy and its links to teacher practices and teacher questioning.
- ItemAllocating State Funds for Public School Library Media Programs: A Case Study of Education Policymaking in Maryland(2007-11-30) Bailey, Gail; Malen, Betty; Education Policy, and Leadership; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)The research had three purposes: to determine what factors account for the legislative decision outcomes resulting in the allocation of state funds for Maryland's school library media programs in 1998 and the denial of continued funding in 2001; to test the capacity of an integrated policymaking model to account for legislative victory and defeat; and to add to literature on state education policymaking in Maryland and school library media funding decisions in state arenas. The study employed an integrated framework developed by combining Kingdon's (1995) multiple streams model with Mazzoni's (1993) power and influence model to examine each legislative decision making event as a political process influenced by the power of the players and shaped by developments in each of the multiple streams. In combination, these two frameworks helped to analyze how efforts to secure dedicated state funding for school library media programs succeeded in 1998 and failed in 2001. The investigator employed an exploratory case study to render a provisional interpretation of the two legislative decision outcomes regarding state funds for school library media programs. The case study produced findings that point to two significant factors that impacted the ability of advocates to secure categorical state funding for school library media programs in 1998 but not in 2001: (1) the key role played or not played by the governor and (2) contextual forces that either enabled or constrained advocacy efforts. The study demonstrates the utility of the integrated model in explaining state education policymaking. Kingdon's multiple streams concept provides broad analytic categories as manageable units of analysis and Mazzoni's power and influence categories provide the analytic tools required to map out the dynamics in each stream. The study includes implications for those who may want to influence education policy decisions in state arenas.
- ItemAlternative Education and Student College and Career Readiness: An Examination of One Urban School System(2018) Fossett, Mark Eric; McLaughlin, Magaret J.; Education Policy, and Leadership; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)ABSTRACT Title of Dissertation: ALTERNATIVE EDUCATION AND STUDENT COLLEGE AND CAREER READINESS: AN EXAMINATION OF ONE URBAN SCHOOL SYSTEM Mark E. Fossett, Doctor of Education, 2018 Dissertation directed by: Magaret J. McLaughlin, Ph.D. A quantitative causal-comparative study was conducted in one large urban school system, in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States to examine the efficacy of alternative high schools for students at high-risk of academic failure as compared to students at high-risk of academic failure in comprehensive high schools. The investigation revealed that there is a significant difference in the academic and sociocultural variables related to college readiness and successful learning outcomes for high-risk students enrolled in alternative schools versus high-risk students enrolled in comprehensive schools. The research was conducted in one large urban school system, and will be referred to as DeKota County Public School System(DKCPS). DKCPS opened their alternative school program in 2003. Through a casual-comparative longitudinal analysis of one graduation cohort’s four-year journey through high school, we will examine the differences in academic and sociocultural variables related to college readiness and successful learning outcomes. Severn variables emerged as being relevant and four of those variables emerged as being significant. They were four different types of quantitative analysis done to validate the variables and the strength of their inclusion in the analysis and outcomes. The data collected provided an opportunity to make recommendations to DKCPS on the benefits that alternative schools have on high-risk alternative school students in their system. Additional research was also recommended to expand this research to multiple school districts to further identify the significant variables that are explanatory of college readiness and successful learning outcomes for high-risk students enrolled in alternative high schools versus high-risk students in comprehensive high schools.
- ItemAMIDST THE TEST: THE LIVED EXPERIENCE OF TEACHING "UNDER" NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND(2011) Woodward, Barbara Agard; Hultgren, Francine; Education Policy, and Leadership; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)In this hermeneutic phenomenological inquiry I explore the lived experience of public school teachers teaching amidst the federal law entitled No Child Left Behind. My research question wonders, "What is the lived experience of teaching under the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB)? My exploration relies heavily upon the work of Ted Aoki, Edward Casey, David Jardine, William Pinar, Hans George Gadamer, and Martin Heidegger. Van Manen's (2003) hermeneutic phenomenological research activities provides the framework for my methodology. Eleven public school teachers were engaged in individual and group conversations to bring forward the lived dimension of teaching amidst NCLB. The rendering of the audio taped conversations suggests a place in teaching akin to illness. These themes yield insight into teaching amidst a testing culture focused on data. Participants reveal how the myopic focus on test results creates a looming feeling within schools as they wait for results from the state assessments. As a consequence, students are color-coded in a non-human way as the colors of red, blue and green. This encourages teaching prescribed scripts within a narrow margin. Reflecting on this dis-ease in teaching, as suggested by these themes, calls for a refocusing and re-languaging of teaching and learning in American public schools. I propose a refocusing of education in three divergent directions. The first is a focus "down" into the classrooms, i.e., more intensely with where students, teachers and communities thrive. The second is a focus on the whole of teaching in relation to the parts. Finally, I call for a focus on the unique which will enable playing outside boxes, a curriculum of discovery and a suspension in the current belief system entrenched in test-focused technical language
- ItemAn Analysis of Perceptions of Teachers and Administrators Toward Various Incentive Programs(1989) Ether, Maureen T.; Dudley, James; Education Policy, Planning and Administration; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, MD)Many individuals and national reports on education support the view that current teacher rewards and benefits are not supportive enough of our efforts to attract and retain high quality teachers in the profession. The purpose of this study was to review the various alternative incentive programs applicable to the teaching profession and, through the use of a survey instrument, gather information regarding the attitudes and perceptions of teachers and administrators in the rural/suburban county being studied. The findings have implications for the design and implementation of an incentive program in many school systems. Specifically, this study sought answers to four questions, based upon the following respondent characteristics: a. teacher or administrator; b. male or female; c. age group; d. elementary, middle or high school assignment; and e. years of teaching experience. The questions were: 1. Are there statistically significant mean differences in perceptions held on the issue of merit pay based upon the respondent characteristics? 2. Are there statistically significant mean differences in perceptions held on the issue of career ladders based upon the respondent characteristics? 3. Are there statistically significant mean differences in perceptions held on the issue of mentor teaching based upon the respondent characteristics? 4. Are there statistically significant mean differences in perceptions held on the issue of changes in the work environment based upon the respondent characteristics? The perceptions of the teachers and administrators who were the subjects of this study were gathered through the use of a modified 1986 Louis Harris survey, "Restructuring the Profession." The survey instruments were distributed to 1,100 teachers and administrators of a single large suburban/rural school system. The statistical analysis indicated that perceptions of respondents clearly were more favorable toward the incentive area changes in the work environment than they were toward the other three incentives--career ladders, mentor teaching and merit pay. Additionally, although respondent perceptions were highly unfavorable to these three incentives, statistically significant differences in perceptions were found among some respondent group characteristics. In 3 of the 4 incentive areas--career ladders, merit pay and mentor teaching-- administrators had statistically significantly more favorable responses than teachers. The findings also indicate that males had statistically significantly more favorable responses than females in 2 of the 4 incentive areas--career ladders and merit pay. The only incentive area that resulted in highly favorable perceptions from all the respondents was changes in the work environment. From these highly favorable responses, a statistically significant difference was found based on gender. Females' perceptions toward changes in the work environment were significantly higher than those of males.
- ItemAn Investigation of the Effects of Tutoring Preschool Handicapped Children Upon the Self-Concept and Academic Achievement of Fifth and Sixth Grade Elementary School Students(1985) Keener, Nancy D.; Heidelbach, Ruth; Curriculum; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, MD)The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of tutoring preschool-age handicapped students upon the self-concept and academic achivement of upper elementary age students. Forty fifth/sixth grad students were randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. The twenty students in the treatment group served for sixteen weeks as tutors to sixteen preschool handicapped children two to five years of age. This treatment group was divided into two different subtreatment and control groups. This grouping made it possible to study the effect first, of praise upon the tutor's self-concept and/or academic performance and second, the effect of the tutor planning, teaching and evaluating his/her own teaching sessions. The study also examined the effect upon self-concept and academic progress of (1) the number of sessions taught, (2) the initial attitude of the tutor toward his tutee, (3) observable progress made by the tutee, and (4) initial low self-concept and/or low academic performance. The classroom teacher's estimate of the tutor's academic performance and self-concept was compared to the student's estimate of his/her self-concept and his/her academic performance. Gains made following pre and post administrations of The Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale and as reflected by grade point averages provided the basic data for the study. Data was analyzed using a two-tailed t test, Pearson Product Moment Correlations, and multiple linear regression. Results of the analysis indicated that (1) students in the treatment group maintained higher grades than students not involved in tutoring a preschool student, (2) grades of tutors who spent more time with their tutees dropped, (3) lower pre self-concept scores were associated with higher tutor self-concept gain scores, (4) the classroom teacher's prejudgement of the student's self-concept correlated significantly with the tutor's final self-concept score, and (5) a high correlation existed between the teacher's judgement of the tutor's self-concept and his/her judgement of the tutor 's academic ability. Noting the apparent strong influence of the classroom teacher upon a student's concept of himself, we should perhaps closely examine the strong initial correlation between the teacher's view of the child's self-concept and the level of academic performance within which she sees him functioning. Perhaps it would be more reasonable to consider providing students with several components to determine their academic performance. The most influential element with respect to both grades and self-concept appeared to be an attachment factor which occurred as a friendship developed between the tutor and tutee.