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- Item10 Ways Historic Preservation Policy Supports White Supremacy and 10 Ideas to End It(2021-05) Wells, Jeremy C.In the United States, policy-driven work in historic preservation comprises about three-quarters of the field’s work. Addressing issues of diversity, inclusion, and equity in federal and local preservation policies has usually been synonymous with the need to recognize the history of people with non-dominant racial or ethnic identities. While this omission is very much a policy problem, it is far from the only manifestation of how preservation policies support White supremacy, especially through the field’s pervasive regulatory climate. To more fully explore the policy problems in the field, this paper attempts to define ten ways in which preservation policy supports White supremacy followed by specific recommendations to solve some of these issues. A central theme is for the National Park Service and the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation to open up and support the rule-making process around the National Register of Historic Places and the Secretary of the Interior’s Standards. A secondary theme is to support people-centered changes to historic preservation policy, including more flexibility around what have often been dogmatic approaches to significance and integrity.
- Item86 Maryland Avenue historic structure report(2014) Moore, Amanda E.; Pogue, Dennis J.; Bovill, Carl H.; Elefante, CarlThe purpose of this historic structure report is to provide a set of customized treatment recommendations for 86 Maryland Avenue, in the city of Annapolis, Maryland owned by the American Institute of Architects - Maryland Chapter. This building is a prime example of the dynamic development of Annapolis, and the additive nature of buildings, because the property was created from subdividing a once large, prominent eighteenth-century Annapolis estate into smaller parcels for residential use, and then the building was expanded to provide commercial space. The recommendations are based on a rehabilitation treatment approach, and were determined after thoroughly researching the building’s history, investigating and documenting the existing building conditions, and determining the character-defining elements. They will help guide future projects on the building, and ensure its preservation.
- ItemA Building Life-Cycle Embodied Performance Index—The Relationship between Embodied Energy, Embodied Carbon and Environmental Impact(MDPI, 2020-04-13) Hu, MingKnowledge and research tying the environmental impact and embodied energy together is a largely unexplored area in the building industry. The aim of this study is to investigate the practicality of using the ratio between embodied energy and embodied carbon to measure the building’s impact. This study is based on life-cycle assessment and proposes a new measure: life-cycle embodied performance (LCEP), in order to evaluate building performance. In this project, eight buildings located in the same climate zone with similar construction types are studied to test the proposed method. For each case, the embodied energy intensities and embodied carbon coefficients are calculated, and four environmental impact categories are quantified. The following observations can be drawn from the findings: (a) the ozone depletion potential could be used as an indicator to predict the value of LCEP; (b) the use of embodied energy and embodied carbon independently from each other could lead to incomplete assessments; and (c) the exterior wall system is a common significant factor influencing embodied energy and embodied carbon. The results lead to several conclusions: firstly, the proposed LCEP ratio, between embodied energy and embodied carbon, can serve as a genuine indicator of embodied performance. Secondly, environmental impact categories are not dependent on embodied energy, nor embodied carbon. Rather, they are proportional to LCEP. Lastly, among the different building materials studied, metal and concrete express the highest contribution towards embodied energy and embodied carbon.
- ItemA Framework for Understanding Sense of Place in an Urban Design Context(MDPI, 2018-04-13) Hu, Ming; Chen, RogerCreating a sense of place and community is a guiding principle in designing livable and high-quality built environments. This paper presents a framework for understanding the relationship between design and people’s perceptions about a place, within an urban design context. While a large volume of literature on sense of place (SOP) already exists, the proposed framework and its application in the design field present a unique opportunity to add new knowledge to this interdisciplinary topic. This research will investigate the empirical relationship between architecture/urban design and people’s perceptions about a place and their contributions to SOP. Urban designers and architects play important and determining roles in defining the physical qualities and the characteristics of a place. However, it has always been challenging to quantify the relationship between a physical environment and a person’s emotional experience. Three urban sites were analyzed to illustrate this framework, and four physical characteristics and four perceptual qualities were cross-investigated and analyzed. This proposed framework will help architects and urban designers to gain a better understanding of SOP and placemaking techniques, eventually helping to improve urban design quality.
- ItemA Multistate Study on Housing Factors Influential to Heat-Related Illness in the United States(MDPI, 2022-11-26) Hu, Ming; Zhang, Kai; Nguyen, Quynh Camthi; Tasdizen, Tolga; Krusche, Krupali UplekarAs climate change increases the frequency and intensity of devastating and unpredictable extreme heat events, developments to the built environment should consider instigating practices that minimize the likelihood of indoor overheating during hot weather. Heatwaves are the leading cause of death among weather-related causes worldwide, including in developed and developing countries. In this empirical study, a four-step approach was used to collect, extract and analyze data from twenty-seven states in the United States. Three housing characteristic categories (i.e., general housing conditions, living conditions, and housing thermal inertia) and eight variables were extracted from the American Housing Survey database, ResStock database and CDC’s National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network. Multivariable regression models were used to understand the influential variables, a multicollinearity test was used to determine the dependence of those variables, and then a logistic model was used to verify the results. Three variables—housing age (HA), housing crowding ratio (HCR), and roof condition (RC)—were found to be correlated with the risk of heat-related illness (HRI) indexes. Then, a logistic regression model was generated using the three variables to predict the risk of heat-related emergency department visits (EDV) and heat-related mortality (MORD) on a state level. The results indicate that the proposed logistic regression model correctly predicted 100% of the high-risk states for MORD for the eight states tested. Overall, this analysis provides additional evidence about the housing character variables that influence HRI. The outcomes also reinforce the concept of the built environment determined health and demonstrate that the built environment, especially housing, should be considered in techniques for mitigating climate change-exacerbated health conditions.
- ItemAccess to the City: Physical, Economic, Social, Inclusion(2019) ramos, Adan Jose; Kelly, Brian P; Architecture; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)ABSTRACT Urban Renewal Highways built following the National Highway Act of 1956 perpetuate a culture of inequity and segregation by acting as socio economic dividers in many postindustrial American cities of the Great Migration. In the Post-Great Recession Real Estate Boom communities disconnected by these highways have received little to no investment, while communities in desirable locations have faced displacement. Southwest Baltimore, Maryland embodies the former. Separated from the heart of Baltimore by Martin Luther King Junior Boulevard the neighborhood has made modest strides in recovering from urban exodus and institutional racism involved in home loans, red lining, and block busting following World War II. As cities revitalize, now is a critical point in history to improve connectivity across Urban Renewal infrastructure and provide access to improved quality of life in communities like Southwest Baltimore, while maintaining affordability and existing culture. To maintain these physical dividers in place is an endorsement of divisive urbanism and subsequent inequitable culture.
- ItemAchieving Independence: Housing for individuals on the Autism Spectrum(2017) Tsouvalos, Marcus; Hurtt, Steven; Architecture; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)Living independently is one of the major milestones which represents one’s passage to adulthood. Many people may take this step for granted and assume it is an inevitable part of life, but for many adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder this is not the case. 80% of adults with ASD live with their parents where they will continue to rely on their care. This situation has many challenges, but a detrimental one for the individual with ASD is fewer opportunities to form relationships outside of the family (find source). Living independently in a supported housing development can provide this population the opportunity for more social interaction while receiving supports needed for everyday living. This thesis will investigate the option of creating highly specialized spaces geared toward offering individuals with ASD more independent living within their community.
- ItemAdaptable Housing: A Sustainable Architectural Solution to Informal Settlements in the Caribbean(2020) Reid , Shanek; Bell, Matthew; Architecture; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)This thesis explores design challenges and conceptual solutions as they relate to residential building forms within urban slum environments- specifically those found in the Caribbean region. It examines the roles of the house, form, and culture surrounding the place and people of Jamaica; using a comparative analysis of historical and current housing models to inform anew, this thesis proposes an economically and socially sustainable redevelopment plan for the house and the block in Trenchtown, Kingston, Jamaica. This culminating graduate project raises questions about the potential to formally design for informality, about the role of the architect in the community, and about the preservation of cultural identities made evident through the tangibility of the built environment. Above all else, this thesis advocates for the socio-economic growth of individuals and communities residing below the poverty rate, using architectural design and urban planning as a catalyst for advancement.
- ItemADAPTATION AS A MEANS OF PRESERVATION: A NEW LIFE FOR THE FRANKLIN SCHOOL.(2010-05) Simon, Chaya R; Linebaugh, DonaldWhen the Franklin School was built in 1869 in the heart of Franklin Square, a vibrant area of Washington, D.C., the school was the gold standard for D.C. public schools. However, despite a few renovations over the years, the building has deteriorated. Currently the Franklin school is empty, but despite its emptiness, it remains a lasting memory of Franklin Square’s vibrant past. It is for this reason that the school needs to be adaptively reused. By redeveloping the Franklin School into a new and accessible public charter school the building can become an active environment once again, while connecting to its past history. However, there are many challenges that come with adaptively reusing a historic building. This thesis will explore those challenges while developing a proposition for the best way to adaptively reuse the Franklin School.
- ItemAdapting An Image: transforming urban built heritage to [re]claim and [re]present an inherited cultural image(2012) Pinnock, Georgina; Ambrose, Michael; Architecture; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)Perpetuated throughout the Caribbean diaspora as street parades and decadent festivities, Caribbean Carnival is an established social ritual that permits revelers to masquerade in extravagant costumes that simultaneously project an assumed character and protect the individual's identity. The wide variety of costumes predominately featured provide such a rich collection of forms and ideas suitable for the architectural exploration of contrasts - the revealed vs. the concealed, the old vs. new - that this thesis poses the question: can the analysis and application of the essential characteristics of Caribbean Carnival costume design be a reasonable approach for the architectural integration of a new cultural program into an established urban fabric? By providing infrastructure for Caribbean nationals active in their shared culture and facilitating continued connections with the wider community, this proposal seeks to innovatively transform a parcel of Washington, DC's built heritage to reclaim and represent an inherited Caribbean identity.
- ItemAdaptive Play: A Place of Healing & Learning(2017) Coronado, Paula Fuenzalida; Tilghman, James; Architecture; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)For many years the disabled community has been secluded from our every day surroundings due to severe impairments and lack of adaptable environments. This is an issue that has fortunately begun to see progress in the early education systems taking place throughout the United States. In more recent years we have seen an increased involvement of school systems providing inclusion programs at the beginning stages of children’s development. Unfortunately architecture has not fully embraced this issue in order to provide spaces that are mindful of this diversely unique population of children. This thesis will explore architecture as a means to provide a space for children of all disabilities, and without, to interact and learn from one another at an early age in order to create an environment of inclusion within communities.
- ItemADAPTIVE RE-USE OF THE SUBURBAN OFFICE PARK: RECLAIMING THE OBSOLESCENCE(2017) Leahy, Meghan Catherine; Kelly, Brian; Architecture; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)On a nationwide scale, the office market is experiencing high office vacancy rates. There are three main contributors for this repositioning in the office market. A trend within the commercial real estate office market is the urbanization of offices buildings and is creating vacancies in suburban office properties. The focus of office building design has always placed a high importance on the individual from the office cubicle, the single-tenant users within the building, and the single use on the site. Lastly the buildings inefficiency in terms of building systems, energy usage, and the standard building facade strategies. The suburban office market is experiencing even higher office vacancy than the urban office market. Montgomery County, MD has an oversaturation of office parks as a direct result of suburban sprawl and antiquated zoning choices. This reinforces the isolation that is the office park typology. This thesis will explore how to take the disconnected building typology of the suburban office park, and re-integrate it into the surrounding fabric. The transformation will include office space that emphasizes a collaborative work environment, housing that accommodates a diversity of incomes, street level retail, and amenity spaces, and active green spaces that encourage neighborhood interaction.
- ItemAdaptive Reuse in Martinsburg: The Interwoven School of Crafts(2008-06-17) McIntyre, Kristina; Kelly, Brian; Architecture; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)This thesis explores critical regionalism and sustainable design through the adaptive reuse of the former Interwoven Stocking Company mill in Martinsburg, West Virginia. New programming establishes the manufacturing complex as the Interwoven School of Crafts, a learning institution dedicated to the production of functional, handcrafted arts and thereby also to the continuance of local culture. Regionalistic ideas are further explored through the development of a visitor center and gallery building that showcases the work of the artists. Nestled within the historic complex, this contemporary building is the interface between spaces, materials, and time periods. By building a contemporary structure the character of the existing buildings is enhanced by the contrast rather than trivialized by imitation or replication. By designing with sustainable principles and building craft in mind the newer components will contribute to both the character and the long lifespan of what is already on site.
- ItemAdaptive Reuse in Post-Industrial Detroit: Testing the Viability of the Engine Works(2008-08-29) Green, Jessica; Eisenbach, Ronit; Architecture; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)The decline of heavy industry and manufacturing in today's major cities has created a serious dilemma. These industrial areas which once brought success and vitality to our cities now exist only as derelict reminders of the past. Through adaptive reuse this thesis reinterprets the industrial landscape as a resource for future growth. An example of post-industrial Detroit, the abandoned Dry Dock Engine Works facility no longer is the vital center of activity it once was. Using this isolated building on the Detroit Waterfront as the site of operations, this thesis seeks to establish a link between past and future, combining multiple new land uses (museum, market, ferry terminal, business incubator) and existing site elements (building, river, rail/trail) to generate a ripple effect of social energy. The interaction between these diverse elements not only creates a new "reason for being" for the Engine Works, but a reason for growth in a shrinking city.
- ItemTHE ADAPTIVE REUSE OF GLENN DALE HOSPITAL(2013) Gross, Jennie; Cronrath, David; Architecture; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)Sanatoriums and asylums across the country are being left to decay despite their architectural and historical significance. Adaptive reuse is not considered an option for many of these former institutions because of the grandiose size of the buildings, the large grounds, and stigmas about the building's former populations. Glenn Dale Hospital is no exception to these challenges, however the site offers the unique possibility to house a senior population in a therapeutic garden setting on the outskirts of a busy metropolis. A feasible adaptive reuse plan for Glenn Dale Hospital would preserve its history while also potentially providing a blueprint for the future reuse of other institutional campuses.
- ItemAdaptive Reuse of the Seaholm Power Plant: Uniting Historic Preservation and Sustainable Practices(2011) Meltzer, Emily Dana; Rockcastle, Garth; Architecture; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)Current historic preservation regulations and sustainability systems rarely overlap for a common goal. Historic properties have many inherently sustainable qualities, none of which are capitalized upon by either regulatory body. As sustainability becomes more essential in our modern world, these two industries must come together. This thesis will study how these two may unite to utilize best practices in reusing historic structures. After studying current sustainability and historic preservation frameworks, a set of values that, when present, formulate holistic sustainability, were created. These values, broken in to economic, environmental and cultural benefits come together for an innovative and education design. Based on these values, a new Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design standard for Historic Properties was created, including a new Social Justice category. These theories were then tested in an adaptive reuse design project for the historic Seaholm Power Plant in Austin, TX.
- ItemAdaptive Reuse: An Architectural Solution to Poverty and Homelessness(2007-05-21) Carlisle, Erin; Williams, Isaac; Architecture; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)All cities are forced to deal with homelessness and poverty; often they rely on temporary shelters and welfare programs as the only solutions. These do not assist the impoverished in establishing themselves in the community, and ignore the fact that many lack the necessary education, job skills, and life skills to establish independence. This thesis examines a way to provide vocational education to break the poverty cycle by providing disadvantaged citizens access to education, training, and work. The abandoned Hostess factory on 7th and S Street NW in Washington DC, and its adjacent vacant land presents an appropriate site for study. Adaptively re-using this factory as a vocational school can rejuvenate the local neighborhood while helping to change the lives of the impoverished. The vocational school is designed as a community school that offers services for poor and homeless adults as well as the continuing education programs for the local community.
- ItemAdvanced Training for the Advancing Soldier(2009) Sanz, Robert; Kelly, Brian; Architecture; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)The United States is and will likely continue to be in a constant state of military engagement. Our soldiers are deployed to the most dangerous war zones in the world, and they selflessly perform their duties. Despite a dramatic decrease in battlefield deaths, the number of wounded soldiers remains very high. Many soldiers that would have died in previous wars are now saved as a result of our improved war theater medical interventions, but many are left scarred physically, emotionally, and socially. This is especially true for amputees who face a unique challenge in reengaging in civilian life. Based on the writings on the topic of Social Capital, this thesis proposes a facility that works toward reintegrating amputees into civilian life with the their typical physical rehabilitation activities. The facility will provide opportunities for the effects social capital to sustain the morale and progress of patients both physically and mentally.
- ItemAEROTROPOLIS: AN AIRPORT AS A DRIVER OF ECONOMIC AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT.(2020) Ohakawa, Tochi Chimaobi; Tilghman, James W; Kelly, Brian P; Architecture; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)In previous centuries, major transportation infrastructure has fostered economic and urban development in places where they were established. This was seen with seaports in the 18th century, Railways in the 19th century, and highways in the 20th century. An emergence of a similar pattern is being witnessed this century as airports have evolved from being just transportation hubs, to drivers of business location and commercial development within and outside its boundaries. Traditionally airports have been located in the outskirts of cities where real estate is cheap and is close enough not to be a tedious commute, but far enough from urban centers to mitigate noise pollution. However, the paradigm has shifted and the “Aerotropolis” urban format has emerged. An Aerotropolis is a type of city where an airport is its central node, and its land use, road network, and economy are planned around this airport. Today, speed and accessibility are the new benchmark and airports are a nexus to a global stream of commerce and trade. Does this make it an ideal incentive for new urban development?
- ItemAffirming Identity: Communities Cultivating Heritage(2021) Inoa, Jazmin; Simon, Madlen; Architecture; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)In the continuing battle to dismantle systemic racism critically evaluating the condition of the built environment proves especially necessary. The history of urban renewal and gentrification within Washington D.C. exists as an ever-present danger to the black and brown communities who live there. The Anacostia Neighborhood proves a culturally rich and underserved community that should be celebrated and supported by its built environment. This thesis seeks to unpack the layers of history and heritage within Barry Farm and present an alternative. Affirming Identity proposes creating a community anchor that utilizes equitable design practices to catalyze community engagement and activity in stagnant zones while celebrating and affirming the Identity of Anacostia.