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- Item2007 Final Report of the National Study of Living-Learning Programs(2007) Inkelas, Karen Kurotsuchi
- Item9M Parent Number Talk(2023-04-10) Mix, Kelly; Cabrera, NatashaThe dataset contains parent math talk scores derived from coding of videorecorded home visits (Cabrera & Reich, 2017) completed when children were 9 months of age, as well as numeracy outcome scores collected when children were 42 months old. Coding was completed between June 2021 and December, 2022.
- ItemA hierarchical latent space network model for mediation(Cambridge University Press, 2022-05-30) Sweet, Tracy M.; Adhikari, SamrachanaFor interventions that affect how individuals interact, social network data may aid in understanding the mechanisms through which an intervention is effective. Social networks may even be an intermediate outcome observed prior to end of the study. In fact, social networks may also mediate the effects of the intervention on the outcome of interest, and Sweet (2019) introduced a statistical model for social networks as mediators in network-level interventions. We build on their approach and introduce a new model in which the network is a mediator using a latent space approach. We investigate our model through a simulation study and a real-world analysis of teacher advice-seeking networks.
- ItemA Study of International Farm Youth Exchange Delegates Who Visited Latin America(1960) Blum, Lee Ann Leet; Wiggin, Gladys A.; Education; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, MD)A. Statement of Problem The problem of this thesis is to study the nature and prediction of adjustment to foreign culture of 24 American International Farm Youth Exchange delegates. Specifically, this thesis is designed to answer the following questions: 1. What was the nature of adjustment or the 24 subjects as determined through: a. An analysis of a questionnaire administered on return from the foreign visit. b. An analysis of correspondence during the foreign visit. 2. Could the nature or the adjustment have been predicted prior to the foreign visit by materials available in: a. Application form for foreign visits. b. Supplementary biographical data. A secondary purpose of this thesis is to review the literature relating to technical and/or student exchange programs of: 1. Foreign nationals in the United States. 2. Americans in other countries. B. Procedures 1. Selection of the Group from which Population Was Drawn A group of 1010 IFYE delegates who have visited a total of 59 different countries and Puerto Rico was the population from which the sample was drawn. Due to the variety of country cultures represented and the world coverage, it was decided to simplify and centralize the population. The 133 delegates who visited the 18 Latin American countries were selected to represent the group. Latin American countries were selected because of their similar cultural and religious background. Since information on file was to be used in the study, it was essential to select only those del egates with comparable data. Comparable data were available for delegate participants during the years 1955-57. As so limited, the group numbered 64. 2. Criterion for Selecting Population The next step was to determine whe ther the 64 subjects could be categorized at the outset into most and least adjusted to the foreign culture visited, on the basis of material available after return. The answer to question number 19 on the Individual Report Form was selected as the item to be used for categorizing. For categorizing question 19, eight individuals were asked to serve as raters. Four raters had only a slight knowledge of the IFYE program and four raters were past participants in the IFYE program. Each rater was given the group of 64 Individual Report Forms and asked to categorize question 19 in one of three categories. These categories were: (1) Least Adjusted, (2) Medially Adjusted, and (3) Most Adjusted. No criteria were given the rater to influence his placement. The categorizing was used as an attempt to see if a significant pattern could be recognized. For the purpose of this study, it was decided that the following method be used in classifying subjects: a. Each subject must appear in the least adjusted or in the most adjusted category a minimum of four times (which means that at least half of the raters thought that the subject was either least adjusted or most adjusted). b. The subject was not to appear in the least adjusted category if classified in the most adjusted category, and vice versa. c. The subject might appear in the medially adjusted category and still be used for the most or the least adjusted category if qualifications for step (a) listed here were fulfilled. After all raters had completed their categorizing, tabulations were made and it was found that 11 subjects in the least adjusted category and 13 subjects in the most adjusted category could be used in this study. Complete categorizing of the 64 subjects can be found in Appendix A. 3. Procedures for Analysis of Data a. Nature of Adjustment Question number 19 of the Individual Report Form was used to categorize the subjects into groups of most adjusted and least adjusted. The question reads as follows: "Of all things that were new and different to you, which were difficult or disagreeable to adjust to?" The Individual Report Form appears in Appendix B. The 24 subjects' responses to the question appear in Appendix G. Answers were available to all other questions on the report and an analysis will be made in this study of all questions relating to the nature of adjustment. Correspondence received from the delegates while visiting in the foreign country was available in individual files. An analysis of the correspondence indicated that delegates report a variety of news. The nature of news reported is available for study in relationship to the delegates' adjustment in the foreign culture. b. Prediction of Adjustment Adjustment while in the host country is of special interest to the officials of the IFYE program. To be able to predict adjustment of a delegate to his host country before actually participating in the program would be of great value to IFYE. This study is designed to investigate available pre-participation background information on each subject. The available information on file relates to: (1) Delegate Application Form (to be found in Appendix c) and (2) Delegate Biographical Form (to be found in Appendix D). The purposes of this study are to investigate the background information listed above and to test for significant relationship of nature of adjustment in the foreign country.
- ItemThe Ability of Maryland English Teachers to Rate Holistically The Quality of Student Explanatory Writing(1988) Peiffer, Ronald Aaron; Jantz, Richard K.; Education; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of Maryland English teachers in using the Maryland Writing Test scoring criteria to place modified holistic ratings on student explanatory writing . The performance of eight expert raters, who had previously demonstrated 80% rating accuracy in training, was compared with the performance of six novice raters, who had not been required to demonstrate accuracy in their training. Accuracy was determined by analyzing error frequency and patterns in error size and direction. Scores were further analyzed to determine writing features, both internal and external to the Maryland Writing Test scoring criteria, that served as predictors of scores assigned by the two groups of raters. Findings indicate that novice and expert raters were approximately 60% accurate in score assignments, with no significant difference in the accuracy level of the two groups. While scores assigned by both groups correlated highly, the size of their errors correlated moderately. Novice rater errors were more often one or more score points below the certified scores that compositions should have received while expert rater errors were equally distributed between overassessments and underassessments of writing quality. The results of stepwise regressions showed certified scores as well as scores assigned by the two groups of raters to be predicted by the number of words in the composition and by the frequency of syntax errors. While 39% of the variance in certified scores was explained by the number of words, around 50% of the variances in novice and expert scores were explained by the same feature. Likewise, syntax error frequencies were slightly stronger predictors of rater scores than of certified scores, contributing 11 % and 17% respectively to the variance in expert and novice rater scores. Of five features associated with the scoring guide, content was the strongest predictor of certified scores, explaining 99.4% of the variance in scores. However, organization was the strongest predictor of rater scores, explaining around 80% of the variance in scores.
- ItemAcademic Affairs and Student Affairs Partnerships Promoting Diversity Initiatives on Campus: A Grounded Theory(2012) LePeau, Lucy Anne; Komives, Susan R.; Counseling and Personnel Services; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)Higher education research suggests student affairs and academic affairs partner to address challenges on campus, such as building inclusive environments for diverse students and staff, but evidence about how partnerships form is lacking in the literature. The purpose of this constructivist grounded theory was to understand how the process of forming academic affairs and student affairs partnerships about diversity initiatives developed with educators involved in a national Project launched by the Association of American Colleges and Universities in the 1990s. The American Commitments Project was designed to encourage educators to center tenets related to diversity in the curriculum and co-curriculum. Research questions included: (a) what can be learned from educators, from both student affairs and academic affairs, about how to formulate partnerships; (b) how do educators involved in these partnerships own perceptions of their multiple identities influence their work implementing diversity initiatives; and (c) how, if at all, has involvement in American Commitments currently shaped the way(s) educators create partnerships? The sample included 18 diverse educators originally involved in the Project on four campuses. Data sources included in depth interviews with participants, campus visits, and institutional archived materials from the Project. After following data analysis procedures consistent with constructivist grounded theory methods, the theory, a Cycle of Making Continuous Commitments to Diversity and Inclusion, emerged. The core category, "making commitments," is the root of the cycle and how commitments are made moves the cycle from sequence to sequence. Issues of exclusion brewing on each campus due to racism and other "isms" initiated the cycle. The subsequent four key categories reflected the considerations and actions educators made leading to partnerships for the purpose of implementing diversity initiatives. Three pathways to partnership characterized the type of partnerships: complementary, coordinated, and pervasive. The pathway employed lead to campus specific outcomes related to diversity and inclusion. The nature of the cycle is iterative meaning that educators must repeat the sequences of the cycle to address current issues of exclusion on the campus. The findings offer implications for campus educators who desire to form partnerships for the purpose of diversity initiatives and for future research.
- ItemAcademic and Social Integration of Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students in a Carnegie Research-I University(2003-12-05) Liversidge, Anne Gray; Mawhinney, Hanne B; Education Policy, and LeadershipOf the small number of deaf and hard-of-hearing students who enroll in mainstream colleges and universities, between 60% and 80% do not persist to attain a college degree. Reasons for the high attrition rate are several, including academic and social difficulties and dissatisfactory experience with college life. This study uses case study methods to illustrate the complex phenomenon of how deaf and hard-of-hearing students are integrated academically and socially into college life at a Carnegie Research-I university. Data gathered from surveys, open-ended interviews, and focus groups are analyzed and used to describe the perspectives of 10 study participants, five undergraduates and five graduates. Documentary evidence and theoretical sampling are other methods used. Data were collected during three semesters. The findings showed that when deaf and hard-of-hearing students are positively integrated into college life, they are more likely to maintain a high level of commitment to college and persist. Pre- and within-college factors that assist the students in their dynamic decision-making process of enrolling and staying in a mainstream university include the following factors: previous mainstream experience, development of study skills and support systems, ability to self-advocate, and level of commitment to attaining a college degree. Additional influence on persistence was the availability of support from the office of disabled student services (DSS) through services such as sign language interpreters and note-takers. The findings are compared to existing literature and theory and are used to raise additional questions for further study. Recommendations for colleges and universities as well as policy-makers working with this student population are provided.
- ItemThe Academic Experiences of and Utilization of Services by College Student-Athletes Deemed At-Risk of not Graduating(2008-05-02) White, Brian; Leone, Peter; Special Education; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)Fifteen intercollegiate student-athletes at a Division I institution deemed at-risk of not graduating participated in a study seeking information on their postsecondary academic experiences. Student-athletes who self-reported a disability were asked if they chose to register with Disability Support Services. Research was conducted by performing individual interviews with each of the student-athletes. Findings indicated the student-athletes in this study felt positive about the support they received and their ability to graduate from their institution. Student-athletes in this study generally displayed an attitude of willingness to do what they need to do to succeed. Sentiments towards reporting a disability were varied. Student-athletes with a learning disability were willing to register with DSS, while participants with other disabilities were less willing to do so. Implications include the importance of a strong academic support system for the success of the student-athlete and both the athletic and academic goals of the institution.
- ItemAcademic Self-Efficacy for Sophomore Students in Living-Learning Programs(2009) Kamin, Melissa Ann; Kurotsuchi Inkelas, Karen; Counseling and Personnel Services; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)This thesis explored which pre-college background characteristics and in-college involvement experiences contributed to academic self-efficacy for sophomore students who participate in living-learning programs compared to sophomores who do not participate in living-learning programs. Using secondary data from the National Study of Living-Learning Programs, 4,700 sophomores were included in the analyses. Two hypotheses were tested. A t-test revealed a significant difference in academic self-efficacy for living-learning and non-living learning students. Astin's Input-Environment-Outcome (I-E-O) model was used as a guiding framework for the second hypothesis. Multiple regression analysis revealed that specific background characteristics, an academic self-efficacy pre-test measure, social environments, academic environments, and positive perceptions of residence hall climates accounted for 26.9% of the variance in academic self-efficacy for living-learning sophomores. For non-living-learning sophomores, these same factors accounted for 17.9% of the variance. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.
- ItemACADEMIC SPOKEN ENGLISH STRATEGY USE OF NON-NATIVE ENGLISH SPEAKING GRADUATE STUDENTS(2011) Ma, Rui; Sullivan, Denis F; Oxford, Rebecca L; Curriculum and Instruction; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)Currently there is a lack of investigation into the language learning and language use strategies of non-native English speaking students at the graduate level. Existing literature of the strategy use of the "more successful" language learners are predominantly based on student data at the secondary school or college levels. This dissertation research project will use a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods ("mixed-methods" research) to examine academic English listening and speaking strategy use patterns of non-native English speaking (NNES) graduate students and also to investigate those students' relevant metacognitive thinking and its impact on their strategy use. First, this research project will investigate what kinds of strategies are being employed and how they are being employed to help those students achieve communicative competence in oral academic English. Descriptive statistics based on a large-scale database of questionnaire responses will be provided. Secondly, this project will investigate what factors have significant effects on the strategy use of this particular student group. Statistical tools such as the multiple regressions and path analysis are used to determine the effects of gender, academic fields, regions of origin, degree level, and other factors. Thirdly, this project examines students' metacognitive thinking and how it impacts their strategy use. The guiding theory related to this line of investigation is that students' metacognitive thinking is closely related to their strategy use patterns. Finally, this project also aims to validate a new assessment tool (a questionnaire) for investigating non-native graduate students' academic English listening and speaking strategy use. Results of the study are expected to eventually help build a descriptive model of listening and speaking strategy use of NNES graduate students and will inform learner-centered instructional design and curriculum development. The ultimate benefit will also be to help many NNES graduate students achieve at a much higher level in graduate school because of their improved English listening and speaking skills.
- ItemACCOUNTING FOR STUDENT MOBILITY IN SCHOOL RANKINGS: A COMPARISON OF ESTIMATES FROM VALUE-ADDED AND MULTIPLE MEMBERSHIP MODELS(2023) Cassiday, Kristina; Stapleton, Laura M; Measurement, Statistics and Evaluation; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)Student mobility exists, but it’s not always taken into account in value-added modeling approaches used to determine school accountability rankings. Multiple membership modeling can account for student mobility in a multilevel framework, but it is more computationally demanding and requires specialized knowledge and software packages that may not be available in state and district departments of education. The purpose of this dissertation was to compare how different multilevel value-added modeling approaches perform at various levels of mobility to be able to provide recommendations to state- and district-administrators about the type of models that would be best suited to their data. To accomplish this task, a simulation study was conducted, manipulating the percentage of mobility in the dataset and the similarity of the sender and receiver schools of mobile students. Traditional gains score and covariate adjustment models were run, along with comparable multiple membership models to determine the extent to which school effect estimates and school accountability rankings were affected and to investigate the conditions under which a multiple membership model would produce a meaningful increase in accuracy to justify its computational demand. Additional comparisons were made on measures of relative bias of the fixed effect coefficients, the random effect variance components, and the relative bias of the standard errors of the fixed effects and random effects variance components. The multiple membership models with schools proportionally weighted by time spent were considered better fitting models across all conditions. All multiple membership models were able to better recover the intercept and school-level residual variance better than other models. However, when considering school accountability rankings, the proportion of school quintile shifts was close to equal across the traditional and multiple membership models that were structurally similar to each other. This finding suggests that the use of a multiple membership model is preferable in providing the most accurate parameter and standard error estimates. However, if school accountability rankings are of primary interest, a traditional VAM performs equally as well as a multiple membership model. An empirical data analysis was conducted to demonstrate how to prepare data and properly run these various models and how to interpret the results, along with a discussion of issues to consider when selecting a model. Recommendations are provided on how to select a model, informed by the findings from the simulation portion of the study.
- ItemACCULTURATION AS CONGRUENCE-DISCREPANCY BETWEEN FRAMES OF REFERENCE: POLYNOMIAL REGRESSION AND RESPONSE SURFACE ANALYSIS(2020) Lu, Yun; Kivlighan, Dennis M; Miller, Matthew J; Counseling and Personnel Services; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)The primary aim of this study was to apply the Self-Discrepancy Theory (Higgins, 1987) to the examination of acculturation orientations for Asian/Asian American populations in the Unites States. This theoretical application defines one’s acculturation orientation as cognitive representations of cultural participation and value adoption on actual, ideal and normative planes. Actual acculturation is an individual’s perception of their current cultural orientation; Ideal acculturation is the cultural orientation someone ideally would like to have; Normative acculturation is the cultural orientation that one believes one should have based on expectations of mainstream society and one’s ethnic community. I further postulated that the discrepancy between actual/ideal and actual/normative acculturation orientations would predict psychological outcomes including depressive symptoms, life satisfaction and belongingness. A 16-item scale, the Measure of Ideal and Normative Acculturation (MINA) was developed to measure acculturation on ideal, actual and normative planes. Polynomial regression and response surface analysis was used to comprehensively examine the relationship between acculturation orientation congruence-discrepancy and psychological outcomes. The main findings suggest that a) discrepancy between acculturation planes was prevalent among participants; c) Under conditions of congruence, higher ethnic culture orientation predicted lower depressive symptoms and higher belongingness; d) Discrepancy between actual and ideal ethnic culture orientations predicted negative outcomes including depressive symptoms, lower life satisfaction and lower belongingness; e) Discrepancy between actual U.S. orientation and perceived normative expectation by one’s ethnic community predicted depressive symptoms, whereas congruence predicted belongingness; f) Greater discrepancy between ideal/actual U.S. culture orientations was associated with both positive (higher belongingness) and negative (higher depressive symptoms) psychological outcomes. Implications and limitations were discussed.
- ItemThe acculturation of adult African refugee language learners in Israel: an ethnographic study(2012) Blake III, Charles Carlos; Lin, Jing; Education Policy, and Leadership; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)The number of refugees from Africa seeking asylum in Israel has recently skyrocketed, raising issues as to how to integrate them into Israeli society. Education is one of the mediums being used to encourage the cultural integration and inclusion of the refugees into Israeli society; very little is known, however, about how Africans are acculturating or whether language education is helping with this process. In particular, I use Berry's model of acculturation and Ogbu's cultural model as lenses through which the acculturation of refugees can be understood. In order to provide an answer to these questions, I conducted an ethnographic study examining the acculturation of adult African refugees participating in a language program in Tel Aviv. I utilized criterion-based sampling to select 8 student participants for this study. Data collection consisted of interviews with student-participants, interviews with teacher participants and document review. Data analysis entailed the coding and categorization of data elicited from data collection. Results suggest that participants exhibited the characteristics of immigrants employing a separation/segregation acculturation strategy according to Berry's model. Most participants also have the characteristics of what Ogbu calls involuntary migrants. Instead of facilitating host country cultural understanding or participation, higher language proficiency was associated with more negative perceptions of Israelis and Israeli society.
- ItemAccuracy and consistency in discovering dimensionality by correlation constraint analysis and common factor analysis(2009) Tractenberg, Rochelle Elaine; Hancock, Gregory R; Measurement, Statistics and Evaluation; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)An important application of multivariate analysis is the estimation of the underlying dimensions of an instrument or set of variables. Estimation of dimensions is often pursued with the objective of finding the single factor or dimension to which each observed variable belongs or by which it is most strongly influenced. This can involve estimating the loadings of observed variables on a pre-specified number of factors, achieved by common factor analysis (CFA) of the covariance or correlational structure of the observed variables. Another method, correlation constraint analysis (CCA), operates on the determinants of all 2x2 submatrices of the covariance matrix of the variables. CCA software also determines if partialling out the effects of any observed variable affects observed correlations, the only exploratory method to specifically rule out (or identify) observed variables as being the cause of correlations among observed variables. CFA estimates the strengths of associations between factors, hypothesized to underlie or cause observed correlations, and the observed variables; CCA does not estimate factor loadings but can uncover mathematical evidence of the causal relationships hypothesized between factors and observed variables. These are philosophically and analytically diverse methods for estimating the dimensionality of a set of variables, and each can be useful in understanding the simple structure in multivariate data. This dissertation studied the performances of these methods at uncovering the dimensionality of simulated data under conditions of varying sample size and model complexity, the presence of a weak factor, and correlated vs. independent factors. CCA was sensitive (performed significantly worse) when these conditions were present in terms of omitting more factors, and omitting and mis-assigning more indicators. CFA was also found to be sensitive to all but one condition (whether factors were correlated or not) in terms of omitting factors; it was sensitive to all conditions in terms of omitting and mis-assigning indicators, and it also found extra factors depending on the number of factors in the population, the purity of factors and the presence of a weak factor. This is the first study of CCA in data with these specific features of complexity, which are common in multivariate data.
- ItemAchievement and integration factors related to the academic success and intent to persist of college freshmen and sophomores with learning disabilities(2007-03-28) DaDeppo, Lisa Marie Wilson; Speece, Deborah; Special Education; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)The number of students with learning disabilities (LD) attending college has increased over the past several decades, yet outcomes including graduation rates continue to lag behind those of non-disabled students. In addition to students' background characteristics and past academic achievement, Tinto's (1975; 1993) constructs of academic and social integration have been the focus of much of the research identifying factors associated with college student success and persistence. Previous research has validated the impact of academic and social integration on college student persistence and success; however, these factors have not been studied with a sample of students who have disabilities. In this investigation hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to study the relative influence of pre-college achievement and college integration variables on the academic success and intent to persist of college freshmen and sophomores with LD, while controlling for background characteristics. Participants were 97 freshmen and sophomores with LD at a large, public university in the southwestern United States. Students completed a demographic questionnaire as well as portions of the Freshmen Year Survey (Milem & Berger, 1997) to measure integration and intent to persist. High school GPA, SAT scores, and college GPA were obtained from university records. Academic, social and total integration were not unique significant predictors of college GPA beyond background characteristics and past academic achievement. However, total integration was a significant predictor of intent to persist, accounting for 17 percent unique variance. Academic integration was a significant predictor of intent to persist accounting for 12 percent unique variance. Further, social integration was a significant predictor of intent to persist, accounting for 18 percent unique variance beyond background characteristics and past academic achievement and 7 percent unique variance in the model that also included academic integration. These findings suggest academic and social integration are promising constructs to explain the persistence of college students with LD. Implications of this study include the need for continued research on the role of academic and social integration for college students with LD, as well as on the practices of high school and college personnel in preparing students with LD for college.
- ItemAchievement Goal Orientations in Physical Rehabilitation(2005-12-01) Lawson, Sonia; Alexander, Patricia A; Human Development; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)Goals are used extensively in physical rehabilitation medicine to measure success. However, the goal construct has been given very little attention in research as compared to the domains of education and sport. Educational researchers and sport psychologists have described the cognitions and relations between goals, beliefs, motivation, and achievement behavior for their respective domains. In particular, goal orientation, a set of beliefs about ability, effort, achievement, and resulting behavior, is a dimension of achievement motivation that affects success in those fields. Goal orientation may influence participation and success in physical rehabilitation as there are aspects of physical rehabilitation that are similar to education and sport contexts. This study examined goal orientations for 237 patients receiving acute in-patient rehabilitation. A questionnaire was created and validated to assess goal or work orientations specific to this sample. Interview data supplemented results from the factor analysis of the questionnaire. Occupational therapists of the patient participants provided quantitative and qualitative data regarding their patients' success and factors related to success. The mastery and performance-avoid goal orientations and the cooperation work orientation were found with the highest frequency. However, none of these orientations related to success. The high frequency of the cooperation work orientation with interview comments validating the usefulness of this motivational aspect provides evidence for the use of groups in rehabilitation. The age of the participant significantly influenced three of the five goal or work orientations included in the study. This study provides a start in the investigation of additional dimensions to the goal construct that may affect participation and rehabilitation success.
- Item“Acquired” Equals Addition? Associating Verbs with Arithmetic Operations Impacts Word Problem Performance(Wiley, 2023-03-29) Jaffe, Joshua Benjamin; Gharibani, Troy; Bolger, Donald JosephSuccessful word problem performance often requires understanding the linguistic relations between characters and objects. However, the keyword method promotes associating specific words with mathematical operations while neglecting the situational context. Research has thoroughly investigated the detrimental effects of individuals associating relational terminology (e.g., “more”) with mathematical operations (e.g., “addition”). The current study expands upon this line of research by examining whether undergraduate students associate verbs with mathematical operations and if verbal associations affect word problem performance. Similar to relational terminology, the participants associated verbs with operations, which significantly impacted performance. The educational implications are discussed.
- ItemActing Out Integrity and Honor: Student Honor Council Cultural Influence on Members' Development(2007-05-18) Appel-Silbaugh, Cara; Komives, Susan R.; Counseling and Personnel Services; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)This ethnographic inquiry of the Student Honor Council at the University of Maryland, College Park provided insight into how this culture bound by enduring values and ritualistic behavior influenced members' development. The purpose of this study was to understand how participation in the culture of the Student Honor Council at the University of Maryland, College Park influenced the development of Student Honor Council members. As a study of culture, ethnographic methodology and methods were employed. Additional questions guiding this study included: (1) how did the members describe and define the culture of the Student Honor Council; (2) how did members come to make meaning and define the various adjudication and educational processes; and (3) how did the honor council culture, and various adjudication and educational processes influence an individual's development? The methodology and traditional methods of ethnography were employed, including individual interviews, group interviews, observations, and document analysis. The findings of this research were analyzed by the Kuh and Hall (1993) and Schein (1992, 2004) theoretical models of culture, including cultural levels of artifacts, values (both espoused and enacted), assumptions, and perspectives. The results of this research were interpreted with the dimensions of self-authorship and compared alongside the learning partnerships model both as defined by Baxter Magolda (1998, 2001, 2002, 2004b). The findings of this research revealed a purposeful, function based culture in which members adapted the values of the culture in a simplistic manner and became more indoctrinated with prolonged engagement. Although the culture did meet the tenets of the learning partnerships model and members expressed an influence of development in the self-authorship dimensions, the culture merely served as a conduit for development, not promoting movement along any developmental scheme. Findings additionally supported Baxter Magolda's claim that "good company" on the journey of development was vital. This study provided advanced understanding of the learning partnerships model as utilized to understand co-curricular experiences. Further, this inquiry links peer-based judicial board experiences to empirical research. Additional links to research, recommendations for practice, and implications are included.
- ItemACTIVATING TECHNOCAPITAL: A CASE STUDY OF MARGINALIZED MIDDLE SCHOOL YOUTHS’ EXPERIENCES WITH INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY.(2023) Crenshaw, Kenyatta Lynn; Elby, Andrew; Croninger, Robert; Education Policy, and Leadership; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)This case study explores ways that socio-cultural and environmental factors influence the technological experiences of marginalized, underrepresented youth at an urban summer learning program, which supports Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) and environmental sustainability education. The study specifically explores the socio-cultural and environmental aspects of students’ experience with digital literacy/ information communication technology (computer based and mobile technologies), and the pedagogical practices applied by educators (teachers, family members, and peers) that influence the students’ experiences with digital learning over the period of eight weeks. The principal focus is on eight middle school students ranging from nine to twelve years of age who reside in an urban environment with their parents/caregivers. In efforts to better understand the experiences of the students, the focus is shared (but not centered) on the parents/caregivers, educators, and volunteer community members who contribute to the students’ perception and use of technology. A major finding of the study is that community-embedded resources, what have been referred to in the literature as funds of knowledge or community cultural wealth, can play a positive role in shaping students’ experiences with technology, especially when students, parents, and educators use those resources to create culturally relevant learning experiences that contribute to building technocapital. In general, the findings address beliefs and contextual ecological factors that contribute to the appearance and activation of social and cultural capital in the technological practices of marginalized youth. The accounts of youth and parent perspectives uniquely display the ways the funds of knowledge and community cultural wealth act as social and cultural capital. The participant stories present how the networks of the participants’ parents and community contribute to social connectivity and the awareness of civic participation in both the exosystem and mesosystem of their lives. Overall, the findings present an evidence-based contribution to further support the need to understand and advocate for funding and the development of policy to address: 1) racial/ethnic and socioeconomic differences in education; 2) the positive processes by which cultural resources in the communities of marginalized youth are converted into social and educational advantages; and 3) increasing knowledge and utility of the various forms of capital embedded in moderate-to-low income, non-majority communities that play a positive role in youths’ motivation to utilize ICT and develop digital literacy skills that increase productivity and achievement. Keywords: underrepresented youth, supplemental learning program, information communication technology, digital learning, social capital, cultural capital, funds of knowledge, community cultural wealth.
- ItemActivism and leadership development: Examining the relationship between college student activism involvement and socially responsible leadership capacity(2010) Page, Jeremy Dale; Komives, Susan R; Counseling and Personnel Services; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between participation in student activism and leadership development among college students. This study applied the social change model of leadership development (SCM) as the theoretical model used to measure socially responsible leadership capacity in students. The study utilized data collected from the Multi-Institutional Study of Leadership (MSL), a research project examining the influences of higher education on leadership development in college students across the country. The sample of 12,510 students consisted of respondents who participated in a sub-study on student activism within the MSL survey. Hierarchical multiple regression models were constructed to investigate the research question using an adapted version of Astin's (1991) I-E-O college impact model. Regression models included participant demographic characteristics, pre-college experiences, institutional descriptors, and consideration of select college experiences in examining the relationship between activism and leadership development. Results indicated that the regression models explained a significant amount of the variance in participant scores. Participation and holding a leadership position in on-campus and off-campus organizations, community service conducted on one's own, and participation in an internship emerged as significant predictors of socially responsible leadership capacity among the collegiate experiences included in the model. Participation in activism also emerged as significant, as awareness of local, national, and global issues indicated influence on all leadership development measures, and participating in protests, contacting public officials, signing a petition, and buying or not buying products due to personal views significantly contributed to measures of citizenship. These findings served to address the existing gap in the literature pertaining to the relationship of student activism and leadership development, and indicated the developmental and educational potential to providing these experiences for students on campus.