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- ItemAcademic Affairs and Student Affairs Partnerships Promoting Diversity Initiatives on Campus: A Grounded Theory(2012) LePeau, Lucy Anne; Komives, Susan R.; Counseling and Personnel Services; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)Higher education research suggests student affairs and academic affairs partner to address challenges on campus, such as building inclusive environments for diverse students and staff, but evidence about how partnerships form is lacking in the literature. The purpose of this constructivist grounded theory was to understand how the process of forming academic affairs and student affairs partnerships about diversity initiatives developed with educators involved in a national Project launched by the Association of American Colleges and Universities in the 1990s. The American Commitments Project was designed to encourage educators to center tenets related to diversity in the curriculum and co-curriculum. Research questions included: (a) what can be learned from educators, from both student affairs and academic affairs, about how to formulate partnerships; (b) how do educators involved in these partnerships own perceptions of their multiple identities influence their work implementing diversity initiatives; and (c) how, if at all, has involvement in American Commitments currently shaped the way(s) educators create partnerships? The sample included 18 diverse educators originally involved in the Project on four campuses. Data sources included in depth interviews with participants, campus visits, and institutional archived materials from the Project. After following data analysis procedures consistent with constructivist grounded theory methods, the theory, a Cycle of Making Continuous Commitments to Diversity and Inclusion, emerged. The core category, "making commitments," is the root of the cycle and how commitments are made moves the cycle from sequence to sequence. Issues of exclusion brewing on each campus due to racism and other "isms" initiated the cycle. The subsequent four key categories reflected the considerations and actions educators made leading to partnerships for the purpose of implementing diversity initiatives. Three pathways to partnership characterized the type of partnerships: complementary, coordinated, and pervasive. The pathway employed lead to campus specific outcomes related to diversity and inclusion. The nature of the cycle is iterative meaning that educators must repeat the sequences of the cycle to address current issues of exclusion on the campus. The findings offer implications for campus educators who desire to form partnerships for the purpose of diversity initiatives and for future research.
- ItemThe Academic Experiences of and Utilization of Services by College Student-Athletes Deemed At-Risk of not Graduating(2008-05-02) White, Brian; Leone, Peter; Special Education; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)Fifteen intercollegiate student-athletes at a Division I institution deemed at-risk of not graduating participated in a study seeking information on their postsecondary academic experiences. Student-athletes who self-reported a disability were asked if they chose to register with Disability Support Services. Research was conducted by performing individual interviews with each of the student-athletes. Findings indicated the student-athletes in this study felt positive about the support they received and their ability to graduate from their institution. Student-athletes in this study generally displayed an attitude of willingness to do what they need to do to succeed. Sentiments towards reporting a disability were varied. Student-athletes with a learning disability were willing to register with DSS, while participants with other disabilities were less willing to do so. Implications include the importance of a strong academic support system for the success of the student-athlete and both the athletic and academic goals of the institution.
- ItemAcademic Self-Efficacy for Sophomore Students in Living-Learning Programs(2009) Kamin, Melissa Ann; Kurotsuchi Inkelas, Karen; Counseling and Personnel Services; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)This thesis explored which pre-college background characteristics and in-college involvement experiences contributed to academic self-efficacy for sophomore students who participate in living-learning programs compared to sophomores who do not participate in living-learning programs. Using secondary data from the National Study of Living-Learning Programs, 4,700 sophomores were included in the analyses. Two hypotheses were tested. A t-test revealed a significant difference in academic self-efficacy for living-learning and non-living learning students. Astin's Input-Environment-Outcome (I-E-O) model was used as a guiding framework for the second hypothesis. Multiple regression analysis revealed that specific background characteristics, an academic self-efficacy pre-test measure, social environments, academic environments, and positive perceptions of residence hall climates accounted for 26.9% of the variance in academic self-efficacy for living-learning sophomores. For non-living-learning sophomores, these same factors accounted for 17.9% of the variance. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.
- ItemACCULTURATION AS CONGRUENCE-DISCREPANCY BETWEEN FRAMES OF REFERENCE: POLYNOMIAL REGRESSION AND RESPONSE SURFACE ANALYSIS(2020) Lu, Yun; Kivlighan, Dennis M; Miller, Matthew J; Counseling and Personnel Services; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)The primary aim of this study was to apply the Self-Discrepancy Theory (Higgins, 1987) to the examination of acculturation orientations for Asian/Asian American populations in the Unites States. This theoretical application defines one’s acculturation orientation as cognitive representations of cultural participation and value adoption on actual, ideal and normative planes. Actual acculturation is an individual’s perception of their current cultural orientation; Ideal acculturation is the cultural orientation someone ideally would like to have; Normative acculturation is the cultural orientation that one believes one should have based on expectations of mainstream society and one’s ethnic community. I further postulated that the discrepancy between actual/ideal and actual/normative acculturation orientations would predict psychological outcomes including depressive symptoms, life satisfaction and belongingness. A 16-item scale, the Measure of Ideal and Normative Acculturation (MINA) was developed to measure acculturation on ideal, actual and normative planes. Polynomial regression and response surface analysis was used to comprehensively examine the relationship between acculturation orientation congruence-discrepancy and psychological outcomes. The main findings suggest that a) discrepancy between acculturation planes was prevalent among participants; c) Under conditions of congruence, higher ethnic culture orientation predicted lower depressive symptoms and higher belongingness; d) Discrepancy between actual and ideal ethnic culture orientations predicted negative outcomes including depressive symptoms, lower life satisfaction and lower belongingness; e) Discrepancy between actual U.S. orientation and perceived normative expectation by one’s ethnic community predicted depressive symptoms, whereas congruence predicted belongingness; f) Greater discrepancy between ideal/actual U.S. culture orientations was associated with both positive (higher belongingness) and negative (higher depressive symptoms) psychological outcomes. Implications and limitations were discussed.
- ItemAchievement and integration factors related to the academic success and intent to persist of college freshmen and sophomores with learning disabilities(2007-03-28) DaDeppo, Lisa Marie Wilson; Speece, Deborah; Special Education; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)The number of students with learning disabilities (LD) attending college has increased over the past several decades, yet outcomes including graduation rates continue to lag behind those of non-disabled students. In addition to students' background characteristics and past academic achievement, Tinto's (1975; 1993) constructs of academic and social integration have been the focus of much of the research identifying factors associated with college student success and persistence. Previous research has validated the impact of academic and social integration on college student persistence and success; however, these factors have not been studied with a sample of students who have disabilities. In this investigation hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to study the relative influence of pre-college achievement and college integration variables on the academic success and intent to persist of college freshmen and sophomores with LD, while controlling for background characteristics. Participants were 97 freshmen and sophomores with LD at a large, public university in the southwestern United States. Students completed a demographic questionnaire as well as portions of the Freshmen Year Survey (Milem & Berger, 1997) to measure integration and intent to persist. High school GPA, SAT scores, and college GPA were obtained from university records. Academic, social and total integration were not unique significant predictors of college GPA beyond background characteristics and past academic achievement. However, total integration was a significant predictor of intent to persist, accounting for 17 percent unique variance. Academic integration was a significant predictor of intent to persist accounting for 12 percent unique variance. Further, social integration was a significant predictor of intent to persist, accounting for 18 percent unique variance beyond background characteristics and past academic achievement and 7 percent unique variance in the model that also included academic integration. These findings suggest academic and social integration are promising constructs to explain the persistence of college students with LD. Implications of this study include the need for continued research on the role of academic and social integration for college students with LD, as well as on the practices of high school and college personnel in preparing students with LD for college.
- ItemActing Out Integrity and Honor: Student Honor Council Cultural Influence on Members' Development(2007-05-18) Appel-Silbaugh, Cara; Komives, Susan R.; Counseling and Personnel Services; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)This ethnographic inquiry of the Student Honor Council at the University of Maryland, College Park provided insight into how this culture bound by enduring values and ritualistic behavior influenced members' development. The purpose of this study was to understand how participation in the culture of the Student Honor Council at the University of Maryland, College Park influenced the development of Student Honor Council members. As a study of culture, ethnographic methodology and methods were employed. Additional questions guiding this study included: (1) how did the members describe and define the culture of the Student Honor Council; (2) how did members come to make meaning and define the various adjudication and educational processes; and (3) how did the honor council culture, and various adjudication and educational processes influence an individual's development? The methodology and traditional methods of ethnography were employed, including individual interviews, group interviews, observations, and document analysis. The findings of this research were analyzed by the Kuh and Hall (1993) and Schein (1992, 2004) theoretical models of culture, including cultural levels of artifacts, values (both espoused and enacted), assumptions, and perspectives. The results of this research were interpreted with the dimensions of self-authorship and compared alongside the learning partnerships model both as defined by Baxter Magolda (1998, 2001, 2002, 2004b). The findings of this research revealed a purposeful, function based culture in which members adapted the values of the culture in a simplistic manner and became more indoctrinated with prolonged engagement. Although the culture did meet the tenets of the learning partnerships model and members expressed an influence of development in the self-authorship dimensions, the culture merely served as a conduit for development, not promoting movement along any developmental scheme. Findings additionally supported Baxter Magolda's claim that "good company" on the journey of development was vital. This study provided advanced understanding of the learning partnerships model as utilized to understand co-curricular experiences. Further, this inquiry links peer-based judicial board experiences to empirical research. Additional links to research, recommendations for practice, and implications are included.
- ItemActivism and leadership development: Examining the relationship between college student activism involvement and socially responsible leadership capacity(2010) Page, Jeremy Dale; Komives, Susan R; Counseling and Personnel Services; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between participation in student activism and leadership development among college students. This study applied the social change model of leadership development (SCM) as the theoretical model used to measure socially responsible leadership capacity in students. The study utilized data collected from the Multi-Institutional Study of Leadership (MSL), a research project examining the influences of higher education on leadership development in college students across the country. The sample of 12,510 students consisted of respondents who participated in a sub-study on student activism within the MSL survey. Hierarchical multiple regression models were constructed to investigate the research question using an adapted version of Astin's (1991) I-E-O college impact model. Regression models included participant demographic characteristics, pre-college experiences, institutional descriptors, and consideration of select college experiences in examining the relationship between activism and leadership development. Results indicated that the regression models explained a significant amount of the variance in participant scores. Participation and holding a leadership position in on-campus and off-campus organizations, community service conducted on one's own, and participation in an internship emerged as significant predictors of socially responsible leadership capacity among the collegiate experiences included in the model. Participation in activism also emerged as significant, as awareness of local, national, and global issues indicated influence on all leadership development measures, and participating in protests, contacting public officials, signing a petition, and buying or not buying products due to personal views significantly contributed to measures of citizenship. These findings served to address the existing gap in the literature pertaining to the relationship of student activism and leadership development, and indicated the developmental and educational potential to providing these experiences for students on campus.
- ItemAn Actor Partner Interdependent Analysis of the Relationship between Evaluations and Affect and Session Attendance in Groups(2011) Jones, Russell Alan; Kivlighan, Jr., Dennis M; Counseling and Personnel Services; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)This study examined the relationship between group members‟ session evaluations and post-session affects and group members‟ attendance in interpersonal growth groups using the session evaluation questionnaire (SEQ; Stiles, 1980). To test the effect of the SEQ scores on attendance in the following session, the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM) was used (Kashy & Kenny, 2000). Results from the APIM analysis were used to examine the effects of session evaluation and post-session mood data on attendance. Group member‟s positivity was related to group member‟s attendance, and other group members‟ smoothness and arousal were related to other group members‟ attendance. There were no significant relationships between group member‟s mood or evaluation and other group members‟ attendance. Other group members‟ depth, smoothness, and arousal were related to group member‟s attendance. These findings suggest that not only do other group members influence each other, but they also influence group members.
- ItemAddressing the Employment Gap with Workplace Supports for Transition-Age Autistic Youth and Young Adults(2022) Chen, Briella Baer; Yakubova, Gulnoza; Special Education; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)Transition-age youth and young adults diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have notably low rates of employment, compared to not only their peers without disabilities, but also compared to their peers with different disabilities. As such, the adoption of additional workplace tools and accommodations to better support transition-age autistic individuals is needed. This dissertation aimed to address this employment gap through examination of different employment supports for transition-age autistic youth and young adults. Chapter 2 is a synthesis of the literature on the use of video-based intervention (VBI) to teach vocational skills to transition-age autistic youth and young adults. Using both qualitative and quantitative methods, this synthesis evaluated 22 studies, finding VBI to be an effective vocational training and support tool for this population. However, the synthesis also identified a lack of authentic implementation of VBI for vocational skills, or implementation by practitioners in real workplace settings. Chapter 3 is an experimental study which sought to examine the effectiveness of VBI when implemented in authentic employment settings and how to train practitioners to do so. The study had two aims: to evaluate the effects of a behavioral skills training (BST) package on vocational support practitioners’ creation and implementation of VBI, and to evaluate the effects of the resulting practitioner-created and -implemented VBI on the vocational skill acquisition of transition-age autistic adults in authentic workplace settings. This study ultimately found that both the BST package and resulting VBI were effective and socially valid. Chapter 4 is a qualitative study that sought to expand upon the topic of workplace supports for autistic youth and young adults by interviewing 12 currently or formerly employed transition-age autistic individuals. The qualitative study had two major aims: to determine what transition-age autistic individuals identify as key workplace supports, as well as their experiences with and views of technology-based work supports, specifically. Through qualitative interviews and analysis, the study identified six major themes for key workplace supports, and four for technology-based supports. The themes, their related subthemes, and practical implications for employers are discussed.
- ItemAddressing the Hispanic Dropout Crisis: Predicting the Educational Persistence of Mexican-Descent Students Using Demographic and Process Variables(2008-12-18) DiPaula, John Joseph; Lucas, Margaretha S; Counseling and Personnel Services; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)ABSTRACT While there has been a concerted effort to close the achievement gap and decrease school dropout rates for more than 30 years, Hispanic students are still dropping out of school at two and a half times the rate of black students, four times the rate of white students and almost eight times the rate of Asian students (Kaufman, Alt & Chapman, 2002). The Hispanic dropout crisis has been recognized as a national problem and was addressed by the federal government through the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, through its focus on closing the racial gap in graduation rates. Regrettably, data continues to suggest that this situation is not improving (U.S. Census Bureau, 2000). A more thorough understanding of the relationship between race/ethnicity and educational persistence is necessary to help create policies and practices to increase Hispanic graduation rates and close the graduation gap. Investigating deeper into this issue of Hispanics drop out, census data disaggregated by national origin, reveal that there are strong differences between nationalities and that Mexicans have the lowest rate of educational attainment among all Hispanic groups (U.S. Census Bureau, 2004). Due to the disparity in performance within the larger Hispanic population, this study will focus on the sub-group with the lowest educational attainment and highest drop out rate, Mexican youth. The purpose of this study is to investigate those input and process variables that may be influenced by school personnel in order to help increase Mexican-descent students' ability to persist in school toward graduation. The current study, in essence, will contribute to a better understanding of students' social support from adults at school (social capital) and the effect this has on students' educational expectations, attendance and persistence. The current study utilizes the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002/2004 (ELS:2002/2004) dataset sponsored by NCES.
- ItemAdjustment in Victims of September 11: Reactions to a Large-Scale Civilan Trauma(2004-08-06) Holmes, Stacey Elizabeth; Hoffman, Mary Ann; Counseling and Personnel Services; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)This study sought to examine reactions to the September 11 terrorist attacks and identify factors that could affect those reactions. Subjective well-being (SWB), impact of traumatic event, and job satisfaction served as the means of assessing adjustment to 9/11/01. It was predicted that those with better health perceptions, more positive psychological characteristics, and more social support would report better overall adjustment to the traumatic events experienced on September 11, 2001. While few hypotheses related to job satisfaction and impact of events were significant, both the psychological variables of resiliency and optimism were predictive of SWB before, two weeks after, and one year after 9/11/01, indicating that people in this sample who perceived themselves as more resilient and optimistic also reported higher levels of SWB or seemed to be happier and have a higher quality of life. Cluster analysis was also used to examine changes in SWB over time (before the event to two weeks after to one year after). The participants in this sample were found to cluster into four groups. The first group's levels of SWB stayed the same, and the second's declined. The third group's SWB increased after 9/11 and eventually returned to baseline, and the fourth group's SWB increased. Resiliency and optimism were found to relate to group membership. While many studies have demonstrated the maladaptive reactions that people have to trauma, this study provides evidence that some people actually report a higher level of SWB following a traumatic event. This study suggests that people who are more optimistic and who have higher levels of resiliency, particularly more feelings of determination and willingness to seek meaning, and fewer feelings of helplessness, will also report a higher level of subjective well-being after dealing with a traumatic event. This study is important because it provides evidence that people, specifically who are directly exposed to a traumatic event, do respond in very different ways. While some people are unaffected or negatively impacted by trauma, many others have positive outcomes (posttraumatic growth) that lead them to a greater appreciation for and more satisfaction with their lives than before the traumatic experience.
- ItemAdolescents on the Lookout for Suicidal Friends on Social Networking Sites(2013) Berger, Jill; Gottfredson, Gary D.; Counseling and Personnel Services; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)There are opportunities to identify and intervene with suicidal adolescents through social media outlets. This study explored the effectiveness of using two types of persuasive messages to encourage adolescents to get help for Facebook friends who might be suicidal. Facebook-using adolescents (N = 299) were recruited to participate in an online survey within which a randomized experiment was embedded. More than one third of participants reported seeing Facebook friends post about suicide. Participants were randomly assigned in a 2x2x2 design to exposure or no exposure to suicide prevention information, a suicide intervention story, and a pre-test assessment. The effects of these conditions on participants' knowledge of what to do and their intentions to get adult help were examined. Participants exposed to information were more likely to report that they knew what to do for a suicidal friend; whereas those exposed to the story were more likely to express intentions to get adult help when presented with suicidal scenarios. Stories depicting social role models appear to be an effective way to encourage adolescents to take appropriate actions when friends post content suggestive of suicide on Facebook. Further research exploring how youth suicide prevention efforts can be integrated with social media is warranted.
- ItemAlternative Break Programs and the Factors that Contribute to Changes in Students' Lives(2012) Niehaus, Elizabeth K; Inkelas, Karen Kurotsuchi; Counseling and Personnel Services; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)The purpose of this study was to explore the extent to and ways in which student participants in Alternative Break (AB) programs report that their AB experience influenced their intentions or plans to volunteer, engage in advocacy, or study or travel abroad, or their major or career plans. Additional analysis explored the specific program characteristics related to the influence of the AB experience on students' lives in these six ways, and differences between domestic and international AB programs. The theoretical basis of this study was provided by Mezirow's (1991, 1997, 2000) theory of Transformative Learning, Fishbein and Ajzen's (1975) theory of Reasoned Action, and Etzioni (1992) theory of Normative-Affective Decision Making. Building on these three theories, Astin's (1991) Inputs-Environments-Outcomes (IEO) model provided structure to the analysis and interpretation of the relationships between student, program, and institutional characteristics and the outcomes in question. The data from this study were collected as part of the National Survey of Alternative Breaks, a multi-institutional survey of students who participated in Alternative Spring Break programs in 2011. Overall 2187 students responded to the survey, representing 443 separate AB trips and 97 colleges and universities. Data from the survey were analyzed following the above conceptual framework (modified to account for the nesting of the data) using descriptive analysis and hierarchical linear modeling (HLM). The results of this study show that students overwhelmingly do report that their AB experience influences these outcomes, and there are a number of program characteristics related to the influence of the AB programs. The extent to which students were emotionally challenged and able to connect their AB experience to larger social issues, the frequency with which students wrote in individual journals, the amount students learned from their interactions with community members and other students on their trip, and the comprehensiveness of the reorientation program after returning to campus were all significant, positive predictors of all or most of the outcomes explored. Finally, an international program location was significantly related to the influence of the AB experience on students' intentions or plans to study or travel abroad.
- ItemAPPLICATION OF THE SOCIAL RELATIONS MODEL TO THE CORE CONFLICTUAL RELATIONSHIP THEME IN GROUP PSYCHOTHERAPY: EVALUATION OF THE SOCIAL MICROCOSM THEORY(2007-03-20) Markin, Rayna; Kivlighan, Dennis M; Counseling and Personnel Services; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)The group therapy literature is plagued with methodological and statistical pitfalls. Likewise, researchers have struggled to develop an accurate method of assessing transference. The study at hand used The Social Relations Model to circumvent common problems in group research and is proposed as a way of measuring transference in group therapy. We used the Central Relationship Theme, a derivative of the Core Conflictual Relationship Theme, as a measure of transference. Additionally, while the social microcosm theory is the cornerstone of interpersonal-process groups, few studies exist to support it. This study assessed the social microcosm theory by comparing group members' central relationship themes with other group members to their central relationship theme with a romantic partner outside of the group. The results suggest that transference is present in member to member relationships.. Mixed results were found to support the social microcosm theory, i.e., that a group member's transference themes outside of the group are repeated within the group.
- ItemAre different temperament traits involved in adapting to routine and novel situations?(2021) Shoplik, Helena; Teglasi, Hedwig; Counseling and Personnel Services; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)Individual differences in adaptability, defined as ease of responding to changes, was initially suggested as a temperamental disposition, observable during the first years of life (Thomas & Chess, 1977), but turned out to be a more complex phenomenon with contributions from multiple temperamental traits (Teglasi, 1998). Temperament traits contribute differently depending on the functional requirements of routine and familiar contexts for reactive and self-regulatory processes. The current study utilizes parent-reported temperament traits measured by the Structured Temperament Interview (STI) and by a well-respected temperament measure (the Child Behavior Questionnaire; CBQ), as well as correlates of adaptive responsiveness (e.g. social competence and emotion understanding) to highlight the role that emotions play in adjustment to familiar and novel contexts. Part of an archival data set, pre-schoolers’ parents completed the CBQ (Rothbart, et al., 2001) and the STI (Teglasi, unpublished) and reported how well their child adapted in novel and routine contexts. Children completed the Emotion Comprehension Test (ECT; Teglasi, unpublished) and teachers filled out the Social Competence Behavior Evaluation (SCBE; Freniere & Dumas, 1995). Results provided support for conceptualising temperament traits as working together like a team—the addition of one temperament trait can change the expression of another. Additionally, different traits emerged as unique predictors in novel and routine situations, even when controlling for the overlap between those situations and other traits. Finally, this study continued to expand on a new construct, Resistance to Emotional Attention, which captures the function of attention as it relates to emotional stimuli.
- ItemAsian American Racial Identity Experiences in Intergroup Dialogue: A Narrative Study(2011) Mac, Jacqueline; Quaye, Stephen J; Counseling and Personnel Services; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)The purpose of this constructivist narrative study was to explore how Asian American students experience their racial identity in intergroup dialogue. This study addressed the following guiding research question: how do Asian American students experience their racial identity in the context of intergroup dialogues? Two Asian American students from two intergroup dialogues participated in this study. Data collection included semi-structured individual interviews and course documents, such as journal reflections. Data were analyzed using a hybrid narrative approach that combined the analysis of the content as an entire story (inductive case analysis), of the content of themes within each story, and of the structure of a complete story (cross-case analysis). Full restories of each participant's story were provided. Four themes emerged from these restories to illuminate how students experienced their racial identity in intergroup dialogue. First, racial identities were experienced in a complicated manner that conflated race and ethnicity, within and outside of intergroup dialogue. Second, the salience of racial identity impacted how and what participants shared about their experiences. Third, both participants shared stories of internal conflict related to their racial identities, which were illuminated by their experiences in intergroup dialogue. Lastly, participants shared similar experiences participating in intergroup dialogue, which included holding back, taking risks, and responding to stereotypes. However, these experiences varied in the ways they were explicitly connected to participants' racial identity.
- ItemASIAN AMERICAN WOMEN IN SCIENCE, ENGINEERING, AND MATHEMATICS: BACKGROUND CONTEXTUAL AND COLLEGE ENVIRONMENT INFLUENCES ON SELF-EFFICACY AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT(2005-12-05) Vogt, Kristen E.; McEwen, Marylu K.; Counseling and Personnel Services; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)The purpose of this research study was to examine, for undergraduate women of various Asian American ethnic backgrounds, the influence of background contextual and college environment factors on their sense of academic self-efficacy and achievement in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors. Social cognitive career theory and its critiques provided a theoretical foundation for relationships from past performance, socioeconomic status, acculturation, and college environment variables (compositional diversity, racial climate, gendered climate, academic peer support), to academic self-efficacy and achievement. Data were collected through an online survey. Instrumentation included the scales of Language, Identity, and Behavioral Acculturation; Gender Discrimination; Faculty and Classroom Behavior; Interactions with Peers; and Academic Milestones Self-efficacy. The participants were 228 Asian American undergraduate women in STEM at a large public, doctoral research extensive university on the east coast; the response rate was 51%. In three MANOVAs for nine social cognitive career variables, four ethnic groups (East, South, Southeast, and Multi-ethnic Asian American) significantly differed only on socioeconomic status. In path analysis, the initial model was not a good fit and was rejected. The model was respecified through statistical and theoretical evaluation, tested in exploratory analysis, and considered a good fit. The respecified model explained 36% of semester GPA (achievement) and 28% of academic self-efficacy. The academic achievement of Asian American women in STEM was related to past performance, background contextual factors, academic self-efficacy, academic peer support, and gendered climate. The strongest direct influence on achievement was academic self-efficacy followed by past performance. The total effect of Asian acculturation on achievement was negative and the total effect of American acculturation on achievement was not significant; academic self-efficacy mediated these complex relationships. The total effects of racial and gendered compositional diversity and racial climate on both academic self-efficacy and achievement were not significant. Students in majors with more female peers reported less academic peer support. In this study, when culturally specific variables embellished social cognitive career theory, the theory exhibited cultural validity for undergraduate Asian American women in STEM. The nature of the relationships among culturally specific variables and college environment variables, however, requires further study.
- ItemAsian Parents' Perceptions of Child Disability and School Contact for Services(2010) Kim, Nayoung; Gottfredson, Gary D.; Counseling and Personnel Services; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)This study examined Asian parents' perceptions of children's disability and factors influencing their utilization of school services. Using the parent questionnaires from a large national sample of high school sophomores (the ELS:2002 data), survey results from Asian American (n=810) and European American parents (n=7710) were analyzed to examine cultural differences between the two ethnic groups as well as between immigrant vs. non-immigrant Asians. This study also assessed the extent to which parental characteristics (Belief About Learning, Recency of Immigration, English Proficiency, Socio-Economic Status, and whether they indicate their child is disabled) predict contacting the school for services. Results indicated that Asians were less likely than Europeans to believe that their child has a disability and also were less likely to contact the school for help. Nevertheless, immigrant parents sought help when they perceived that their child had a disability. Neither immigrant parent's length of stay in the U.S. nor English proficiency predicted the school contact behaviors. Implications for introducing school-based services and outreach for Asian American parents are suggested, particularly for recent immigrants.
- ItemASIAN-AMERICAN IMMIGRANT PARENTS’ BELIEFS ABOUT HELPFUL STRATEGIES FOR ADDRESSING ADOLESCENT MENTAL HEALTH CONCERNS(2018) Frese, Kristen Marie; Wang, Cixin; Counseling and Personnel Services; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)The present exploratory, mixed-methods study explores Asian-American immigrant parents’ beliefs about helpful strategies for addressing youth mental illness (i.e., depression and eating disorders). Nineteen Asian-American immigrant parents (M=46.1 years, SD=3.9) completed closed-ended surveys and semi-structured interviews. Frequency counts were collected from the surveys on parents’ attitudes toward mental health services, products, and providers for the prevention and intervention of adolescent mental illnesses. The interviews were coded for themes using thematic analysis in order to explore parents’ beliefs about helpful strategies for addressing youth mental illness. Five primary strategies for addressing youth mental health concerns emerged: Providing social support; providing strategies to improve mental health; teaching adolescents about mental health; seeking help from professionals; and identifying the cause or diagnosing the problem. The roles that the school and culture play in each of those strategies is discussed. Implications are given for school-based mental health providers.
- ItemAssessing El Salvador's Capacity For Creating Inclusive Educational Opportunities for Students with Disabilities Using a Capacity Assessment Framework(2007-01-30) Hernandez, Glenda Yvonne; McLaughlin , Margaret J.; Special Education; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)Increasing education access for children throughout the world is a frequently discussed topic in the international community. Efforts to meet international goals such as Education for All and the Millennium Development Goals have included providing developing nations with grants, loans and other services such as technical assistance. Despite these efforts, there are many students who still do not have access to an education, with many students being those with disabilities. Through an exploratory case study, a capacity assessment framework was used to assess El Salvador's capacity for creating inclusive educational opportunities for students with disabilities. Interviews with government officials, non-governmental organizations, parents, teachers, and school administrators were conducted. Additional data was collected through observations and document reviews. The results of the study indicate the need for capacity building assessments as such assessments reveal the strengths and needs of a system's ability to provide inclusive educational opportunities for students with disabilities. El Salvador's strengths include the presence of established policies identifying students with disabilities and the presence of an entity (CONAIPD) which brings private and public organizations together to discuss access issues related to persons with disabilities. Furthermore, there are several advocacy organizations trying to increase their involvement and supports for parents and schools in order to increase and improve educational access and opportunities for students with disabilities. The capacity assessment also revealed the areas of need for El Salvador to increase its capacity in providing inclusive educational opportunities for students with disabilities, which included strengthening authority legitimacy, developing a consistent definition and identification process for students with disabilities and increasing teacher training and resources. Collectively, these results imply the need for additional capacity assessments as well as the need to reassess the assistance provided to nations with developing school systems that are trying to meet goals set forth by the international community.