Browsing Physics Research Works by Subject "actin"
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- ItemData for "A tug of war between filament treadmilling and myosin induced contractility generates actin ring"(2022-06-23) Ni, Qin; Wagh, Kaustubh; Pathni, Aashli; Ni, Haoran; Vashisht, Vishavdeep; Upadhyaya, Arpita; Papoian, Garegin A.; Upadhyaya, Arpita; Papoian, Garegin A.In most eukaryotic cells, actin filaments assemble into a shell-like actin cortex under the plasma membrane, controlling cellular morphology, mechanics, and signaling. The actin cortex is highly polymorphic, adopting diverse forms such as the ring-like structures found in podosomes, axonal rings, and immune synapses. The biophysical principles that underlie the formation of actin rings and cortices remain unknown. Using a molecular simulation platform, called MEDYAN, we discovered that varying the filament treadmilling rate and myosin concentration induces a finite size phase transition in actomyosin network structures. We found that actomyosin networks condense into clusters at low treadmilling rates or high myosin concentration but form ring-like or cortex-like structures at high treadmilling rates and low myosin concentration. This mechanism is supported by our corroborating experiments on live T cells, which exhibit ring-like actin networks upon activation by stimulatory antibody. Upon disruption of filament treadmilling or enhancement of myosin activity, the pre-existing actin rings are disrupted into actin clusters or collapse towards the network center respectively. Our analyses suggest that the ring-like actin structure is a preferred state of low mechanical energy, which is, importantly, only reachable at sufficiently high treadmilling rates.