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### Browsing Physics by Subject "accelerator"

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Item Calculation of Realistic Charged-Particle Transfer Maps(2007-10-28) Mitchell, Chad Eugene; Dragt, Alex; Physics; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)The study and computation of nonlinear charged-particle transfer maps is fundamental to understanding single-particle beam dynamics in accelerator devices. Transfer maps for individual elements of the beamline can in general depend sensitively on nonlinear fringe-field and high-multipole effects. The inclusion of these effects requires a detailed and realistic model of the interior and fringe magnetic fields, including knowledge of high spatial derivatives. Current methods for computing such maps often rely on idealized models of beamline elements. This Dissertation describes the development and implementation of a collection of techniques for computing realistic (as opposed to idealized) charged-particle transfer maps for general beamline elements, together with corresponding estimates of numerical error. Each of these techniques makes use of 3-dimensional measured or numerical field data on a grid as provided, for example, by various 3-dimensional finite element field codes. The required high derivatives of the corresponding vector potential**A**, required to compute transfer maps, cannot be reliably computed directly from this data by numerical differentiation due to numerical noise whose effect becomes progressively worse with the order of derivative desired. The effect of this noise, and its amplification by numerical differentiation, can be overcome by fitting on a bounding surface far from the axis and then interpolating inward using the Maxwell equations. The key ingredients are the use of surface data and the smoothing property of the inverse Laplacian operator. We explore the advantages of map computation using realistic field data on surfaces of various geometry. Maps obtained using these techniques can then be used to compute realistically all derived linear and nonlinear properties of both single pass and circular machines. Although the methods of this Dissertation have been applied primarily to magnetic beamline elements, they can also be applied to electric and radio-frequency beamline elements.Item Interaction of Lasers with Atomic Clusters and Structured Plasmas(2007-11-09) Palastro, John Patrick; Antonsen, Thomas M; Physics; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)We examine the interaction of intense, short laser pulses with atomic clusters and structured plasmas, namely preformed plasma channels. In examining the laser pulse interaction with atomic clusters we focus on the optical response of an individual cluster when irradiated by a laser. Our analysis of the laser pulse interaction with plasma channels focuses on the mode structure of a laser pulse propagating within the channel. We then present a novel application of these channels: quasi-phased match acceleration of electrons. The optical properties of a gas of laser pulse exploded clusters are determined by the time-evolving polarizabilities of individual clusters. In turn, the polarizability of an individual cluster is determined by the time evolution of individual electrons within the cluster's electrostatic potential. We calculate the linear cluster polarizability using the Vlasov equation. A quasi-static equilibrium is calculated from a bi-maxwellian distribution that models both the hot and cold electrons, using inputs from a particle-in-cell simulation [Taguchi, T. et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 2004. 92(20)]. We then perturb the system to first order in field and integrate the response of individual electrons to the self consistent field following unperturbed orbits. The dipole spectrum depicts strong absorption at frequencies much smaller than omega_p/√2. This enhanced absorption results from a beating of the laser field with electron orbital motion. The properties of pulse propagation within plasma are determined by the structure of the plasma. The preformed plasma channel provides a guiding structure for laser pulses unbound by the intensity thresholds of standard wave guides. In particular, the corrugated plasma channel [Layer et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. (2007)] allows for the guiding of subluminal spatial harmonics. These spatial harmonics can be phase matched to high energy electrons, making the corrugated plasma channel ideal for the acceleration of electrons. We present a simple analytic model of pulse propagation in a corrugated plasma channel and examine the laser-electron beam interaction. Simulations show accelerating gradients of several hundred MeV/cm for laser powers much lower than required by standard laser wakefield schemes.Item Laser Wakefield Acceleration in Optical Field Ionized Plasma Waveguides(2021) Feder, Linus; Milchberg, Howard; Physics; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)Laser wakefield accelerators (LWFA) can support acceleration gradients orders of magnitude higher than conventional radio frequency linear accelerators. This gives them the potential to drive the next generation of accelerators for high energy physics, as well as compact accelerators for many other applications. However, in order to reach higher energies and improve electron beam quality, LWFA requires the development of plasma waveguides. This thesis demonstrates two new all optical techniques for the creation of plasma waveguides. The first, “two-Bessel” technique uses a ?0 Bessel beam to form the core of the waveguide and a higher order ?? Bessel beam to form the cladding. In the second, “self-waveguiding” technique, the guided beam itself forms the cladding of the waveguide. Preliminary electron acceleration results using the self-guiding technique, as well electron acceleration simulations are also presented.Item Study and Mitigation of Transverse Resonances with Space Charge Effects at the University of Maryland Electron Ring(2020) Dovlatyan, Levon; Antonsen, Thomas M; Beaudoin, Brian L; Physics; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)Research at the intensity frontier of particle physics has led to the consideration of accelerators that push the limits on achievable beam intensities. At high beam intensities Coulomb interactions between charged particles generate a space charge force that complicates beam dynamics. The space charge force can lead to a range of nonlinear, intensity- limiting phenomena that result in degraded beam quality and current loss. This is the central issue faced by the next generation of high-intensity particle accelerators. An improved understanding of the interaction of the space charge forces and transverse particle motion will help researchers better design around these limiting issues. Furthermore, any scheme able to mitigate the impacts of such destructive interactions for space charge dominated beams would help alleviate a significant limitation in reaching higher beam intensities. Experimental work addressing these issues is presented using the University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER). This dissertation presents experimental studies of space charge dominated beams, and in particular the resonant interaction between the transverse motion of the beam and the periodic perturbations that occur due to the focusing elements in a circular ring. These interactions are characterized in terms of the tune shifts, Qx and Qy, that are the number of transverse oscillations (in and out of the plane of the ring) per trip around the ring. Resonances occur for both integer and half-integer values of tune shift. Particle tune measurement tools and resonance detection techniques are developed for use in the experiment. Results show no shift for either the integer (Qx = 7.0, Qy = 7.0) or half-integer (Qx = 6.5, Qy = 6.5) resonance bands as a function of space charge. Accepted theory predicts only a shift in the half-integer resonance case. A second experiment testing the potential mitigation of transverse resonances through nonlinear detuning of particle orbits from resonance driving terms is also presented. The study included the design, simulation, and experimental test of a quasi-integrable accelerator lattice based on a single nonlinear octupole channel insert. Experiments measured a nonlinear amplitude dependent tune shift within the beam on the order of ∆Qx ≈ 0.02 and ∆Qy ≈ 0.03. The limited tolerances on accelerator steering prevented measuring any larger tune shifts.