Browsing AREC Extension Publications by Issue Date
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- ItemEstimated Payments Under the 2014 County Agricultural Risk Coverage Program in Maryland(2015-07) Leathers, Howard; Goeringer, PaulProvides an estimate of potential payments by county for the 2014 Crop Year.
- ItemCommodity Program Choices by Maryland Farmers under the 2014 Farm Bill(2015-07) Leathers, Howard; Goeringer, PaulQuick overview of which programs Maryland farmers signed up for with the 2014 Farm Bill.
- ItemA Primer on Crop Insurance(2015-08) Leathers, Howard; Goeringer, PaulFundamentally, risk management on a farm is aimed at smoothing out the income or profit stream over time. This is accomplished by accepting lower incomes or profits during good times in exchange for higher incomes or profits during bad times. Crop insurance is an important tool for risk management. This paper describes comprehensively the details about how crop insurance works. Because crop insurance uses futures market prices in some important ways, the paper also briefly reviews how futures markets operate.
- Item2014 Farm Bill Makes Changes to the Noninsured Crop Disaster Assistance Program(2015-09) Goeringer, Paul; Leathers, HowardThe Noninsured Crop Disaster Assistance Program (NAP) was established in 1994 and administered by USDA’s Farm Service Agency (FSA). NAP is a risk management tool for those producers growing crops not currently covered by a crop insurance product. The 2014 Farm Bill reauthorized NAP and made some dramatic changes to the program. NAP now offers coverage from the 50-percent level to the 65-percent level with producers able to buy-up coverage in 5-percent increments at up to 100 percent of the established market price. Prior to the 2014 Farm Bill, NAP had only allowed coverage at the 50-percent level and 55 percent of the established market price of the crop.
- ItemLegal Risk Management Solutions for Community Supported Agriculture in Maryland(2015-09) Suri, Mayhah; Goeringer, PaulHighlights the results of a survey conducted in the summer of 2014 by Maryland Department of Ag looking at the use of contracts and other risk management tools utilized by CSA operators in Maryland. The report also highlights workshops and materials developed by the Department of Agricultural and Resource and the Ag Law Education Initiative conducted in the winter of 2015. Finally, the report highlights state programs that verify CSA operators in California.
- ItemPoultry Growers Will Have to Wait a Little Longer for Crop Insurance Coverage(2016-02) Goeringer, Paul; Leathers, HowardThis article reviews recent reports looking at the ability to implement crop insurance products for poultry growers. For both business interruption insurance and disease insurance, USDA concluded that the current legislation would not allow for the Risk Management Agency to develop products that work for these growers.
- ItemCrop Insurance Option for Diversified Operations: Whole Farm Revenue Protection(2016-05-11) Goeringer, Paul; Leathers, HowardThe 2014 Farm Bill authorized USDA’s Risk Management Agency (RMA) to develop a new type of revenue insurance product: Whole-Farm Revenue Protection (WFRP). WFRP provides a risk management tool for all commodities on farms with up to $8.5 million in insured revenue. WFRP is not intended for one specific crop such as corn, wheat, or soybeans like traditional revenue and yield insurance products, but is intended to cover all crops and livestock grown on a farm. This new product has replaced the Adjusted Gross Revenue (AGR) and Adjusted Gross Revenue-Lite policies.
- ItemFederal Crop Insurance Program Expands in 2016 and 2017 to Cover More Organic Crops(2016-07-21) Goeringer, Paul; Leathers, Howard
- ItemCrop Insurance For Maryland Field Crops And Livestock(2016-07-28) Harper, Jayson; Goeringer, Paul
- ItemConservation Easements: A Useful Tool for Farm Transition and Estate Planning(2016-09) Lynch, Lori; Goeringer, Paul
- ItemSupplemental Coverage Option Expanding as Part of the Farm Safety Net(2016-09-08) Goeringer, Paul; Leathers, HowardThe 2014 Farm Bill created Supplemental Coverage Option (SCO), a new add-on crop insurance option which provides supplemental coverage on a producer’s underlying crop insurance policy. SCO operates by mimicking a producer’s individual crop insurance coverage and covering a portion of the deductible based on county-level yield or revenue. SCO is available in select Maryland counties for apples, barley, corn, grain sorghum, green peas, oats, peaches, processing beans, soybeans, sweet corn, and winter wheat, as of the 2017 crop year. USDA’s Risk Management Agency (RMA) continues to expand covered counties and crops covered, and begin distinguishing by practices (such as irrigated compared to non-irrigated).
- ItemFarm Data: Ownership and Protections(2017-01) Ellixson, Ashley; Griffin, TerryThe issue of farm data has been a contentious point of debate with respect to ownership rights and impacts when access rights are misappropriated. One of the leading questions farmers ask deals with the protections provided to farm data. Although no specific laws or precedence exists, the possibility of trade secret is examined and ramifications for damages discussed. Farm management examples are provided to emphasize the potential outcomes of each possible recourse for misappropriating farm data.
- ItemConsiderations for Equine Lease Agreements(2017-04) Bhadurihauck, Sara; Goeringer, PaulOffering a horse for lease can be a good option for an owner who is unable to ride or care for their horse due to physical, time, or financial constraints but still wishes to maintain ownership. A lease can be an alternative to selling the horse, a way to cut maintenance costs, or an avenue to ensure the horse remains in work. While some verbal contracts are considered binding in Maryland, getting the agreement in writing is a good idea. A well-written lease can protect the owner (also called the lessor) and the lessee (the person leasing the horse) from liability and ensure both parties understand their rights and responsibilities. An equine lease can take many forms, depending on how the lease agreement is constructed. Consider the following items when preparing or reviewing a written lease agreement.
- ItemFarmer-saved Seed: What is Legal? What is Not?(2017-06) Morris, Dale; Kratochvil, Robert; Goeringer, PaulMost wheat and soybean seed sold in Maryland is protected by either U.S. Patent Law or the Plant Variety Protection Act (PVPA). These protections severely limit the age-old practice of “farmer-saved seed” or prohibit it entirely, depending upon the protection the owner of the variety secures. The following will discuss the implications of Patent Law and PVPA on farmer-saved seed of wheat and soybeans.
- ItemDownzoning for the Preservation of Agricultural and Forest Lands(2017-07) Newburn, David A.
- ItemEnsuring the Continued Viability of Rural Communities: Using Mediation to Settle Disputes(2017-08) Grahame, Mason; Goeringer, PaulMediation, a form of alternative dispute resolution, has considerable advantages over litigation in terms of relationships among parties, finances, and time. Mediation can be a useful alternative to expensive litigation for many disputes. It encourages individuals to take responsibility for their issues by meeting to discuss both sides of the story openly, and properly identifying facts with a mediator in an effort to avoid expensive litigation. This publication covers Maryland's Agricultural Conflict Resolution Service through the Maryland Department of Agriculture. This USDA approved mediation program works to provide low-cost to free mediation services to resolve agricultural disputes.
- ItemUnderstanding Agricultural Liability: Maryland’s Right-to-Farm Law Can Limit Liability for Maryland Farm, Commercial Fishing, and Seafood Operators(2017-09) Goeringer, Paul; Lynch, LoriMany individuals moving into agricultural areas in Maryland have no farm backgrounds and little understanding of agricultural operations. The same is true of commercial fishing and seafood operations in Maryland. Once there, the new residents may find the noises, insects, farm equipment on the roads, smells, and other characteristics of agricultural and commercial seafood life unexpected and objectionable. While neighbors should consider working together and developing open lines of communication to find solutions, in some cases, this cooperative approach may not work. In response, Maryland introduced a Right-to-Farm (RTF) law in 1981. All 50 states have RTF laws which typically shield agricultural activities from complaining nonfarm neighbors by limiting the scope of and providing a defense for nuisance actions brought against farms and other agricultural operations. In 2014, Maryland extended these protections to commercial seafood operations and watermen.
- ItemManagement Tool of Last Resort: Bankruptcy Offers Protections to Qualifying Agricultural Operations and Fishermen to Restructure Business and Survive Tough Economic Times(2017-10-17) Grahame, Mason; Goeringer, PaulAgriculture like many businesses is full of risks: marketing, financial, production, labor, and legal risks. With each risk area, producers must develop strategies to manage those risks. To manage marketing risks, for example, a producer would develop a plan for how to handle crops grown over the course of the season to maximize profits. Managing financial risks may require a producer to purchase crop insurance to cover losses if a crop fails. But sometimes in an operation, the risks may outnumber the strategies developed to manage those risks, and the operation may experience significant financial losses. Bankruptcy is often a risk management tool of last resort for a farming operation. For many family farmers and fishermen, the idea of bankruptcy is enough to lose the benefits from avoiding filing in a reasonable time. Chapter 12 of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code has made business reorganization and debt repayment a much more streamlined process, allowing family farmers and fishermen to reorganize their operation to avoid total business collapse. Chapter 12 is useful for most farmers and fishermen seeking help under U.S. Bankruptcy Code. Chapter 7 and Chapter 13 is useful for debts of a single individual in business with unexpected business difficulties, and Chapter 11 may be used as a last resort when a debtor’s debt exceeds limits from other chapters, or are not qualified for a Chapter 12.