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- ItemThe context of violent disagreements between parents: a qualitative analysis from parents’ reports(Springer Nature, 2014-12-24) Bair-Merritt, Megan H; Mandal, Mahua; Epstein, Norman B; Werlinich, Carol A; Kerrigan, DeannaIntimate partner violence (IPV) is a prevalent public health problem that affects millions of families. Much of what is known about IPV comes from quantitative studies that often "count" acts of IPV without exploring in depth the circumstances surrounding the violence, thereby leaving critical questions unanswered; existing qualitative studies tend to focus solely on women’s perspectives. There is a dearth of dyadic qualitative research exploring the context of IPV in families with children, thus hindering the development of effective interventions for families experiencing IPV. Seven heterosexual couples were recruited from a University-based family therapy clinic to participate in qualitative interviews. Couples were eligible if they had experienced severe verbal or any physical aggression during the past 4 months; had ≥ one child living in the household; were English-speaking; and were ≥ 18. Each individual was interviewed separately. Key topics explored included specific types of violence used by men and women; primary triggers and the context surrounding aggressive disagreements; degree to which the child(ren) were exposed; and perceived consequences for adults and children. All couples listed household responsibilities and parenting as key IPV triggers. Couples with infants reported that parenting disagreements were particularly heated, with women using aggression due to frustration about their partners’ lack of support. Couples also described substance use, wanting to be heard, and prior violence histories as triggers or as the background context for IPV episodes. Children were present during IPV and often intervened in conflicts involving severe violence. Parents’ perceptions of the effects of IPV on their children ranged from minimal to major emotional distress, with men describing more significant impact than women. When describing acute triggers, parents most commonly mentioned that arguments were instigated by concerns about the division of household labor and parenting, a finding that may have significant implications for intervention development; this was particularly notable for parents of infants. Our findings emphasize the need for innovative programs that help parents cope with the stresses of raising a family as well as programs that directly address the consequences of IPV for children.
- ItemMaternal Trauma and Adolescent Depression: Is Parenting Style a Moderator?(Scientific Research Publishing, 2015-05-06) Leslie, Leigh A.; Cook, Emily T.Current research suggests that parents who experience symptoms of trauma transfer distress to their children. The purpose of this study was to understand the possible moderating effect of mothers’ parenting style on this relationship for adolescents. This study differs from much of the existing literature in that the adolescents themselves are the reporters of their own well-being. The level of maternal trauma, use of parenting styles, and adolescent depression were examined for a clinical sample of 113 mothers and adolescent dyads. Results indicate that mothers who experience high levels of trauma symptoms are more likely to parent using authoritarian or permissive behaviors. Although mother’s level of trauma alone was not related to adolescent’s depression, an interaction was found such that mothers experiencing high levels of trauma symptoms who parented with an authoritarian style had adolescents who experienced more depression than those whose mothers were less authoritarian. These findings are discussed in light of the larger literature on “secondary trauma”, or the transfer of distress, which often focuses on young children, with mothers as the reporters of both their own and their children’s functioning. Clinical implications are also considered.
- ItemPredictors of maternal health services utilization by poor, rural women: a comparative study in Indian States of Gujarat and Tamil Nadu(Springer Nature, 2015-07-31) Vora, Kranti Suresh; Koblinsky, Sally A.; Koblinsky, Marge A.India leads all nations in numbers of maternal deaths, with poor, rural women contributing disproportionately to the high maternal mortality ratio. In 2005, India launched the world’s largest conditional cash transfer scheme, Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY), to increase poor women’s access to institutional delivery, anticipating that facility-based birthing would decrease deaths. Indian states have taken different approaches to implementing JSY. Tamil Nadu adopted JSY with a reorganization of its public health system, and Gujarat augmented JSY with the state-funded Chiranjeevi Yojana (CY) scheme, contracting with private physicians for delivery services. Given scarce evidence of the outcomes of these approaches, especially in states with more optimal health indicators, this cross-sectional study examined the role of JSY/CY and other healthcare system and social factors in predicting poor, rural women’s use of maternal health services in Gujarat and Tamil Nadu. Using the District Level Household Survey (DLHS)-3, the sample included 1584 Gujarati and 601 Tamil rural women in the lowest two wealth quintiles. Multivariate logistic regression analyses examined associations between JSY/CY and other salient health system, socio-demographic, and obstetric factors with three outcomes: adequate antenatal care, institutional delivery, and Cesarean-section. Tamil women reported greater use of maternal healthcare services than Gujarati women. JSY/CY participation predicted institutional delivery in Gujarat (AOR = 3.9), but JSY assistance failed to predict institutional delivery in Tamil Nadu, where mothers received some cash for home births under another scheme. JSY/CY assistance failed to predict adequate antenatal care, which was not incentivized. All-weather road access predicted institutional delivery in both Tamil Nadu (AOR = 3.4) and Gujarat (AOR = 1.4). Women’s education predicted institutional delivery and Cesarean-section in Tamil Nadu, while husbands’ education predicted institutional delivery in Gujarat. Overall, assistance from health financing schemes, good road access to health facilities, and socio-demographic and obstetric factors were associated with differential use of maternity health services by poor, rural women in the two states. Policymakers and practitioners should promote financing schemes to increase access, including consideration of incentives for antenatal care, and address health system and social factors in designing state-level interventions to promote safe motherhood.
- ItemBreaking down the monolith: Understanding flu vaccine uptake among African Americans(Elsevier, 2017-11-11) Quinn, Sandra Crouse; Jamison, Amelia; An, Ji; Freimuth, Vicki S.; Hancock, Gregory R.; Musa, DonaldBlack adults are significantly less likely to be immunized for seasonal influenza when compared to Whites. This persistent disparity contributes to increased influenza-related morbidity and mortality in the African American population. Most scholarship on vaccine disparities has compared Whites and Blacks. Employing Public Health Critical Race Praxis, this study seeks to shift the focus to explore differences within the Black population. Utilizing a nationally-representative 2015 survey of US Black adults (n = 806), we explore differences by gender, age, income, and education across vaccine-related measures (e.g., perceived risk, knowledge, attitudes) and racial factors (e.g. racial salience, racial fairness, perceived discrimination). We also explore differences by vaccine behavior in the past five years among those who vaccinate every year, most years but not all, once or twice, and never. Greater frequency of flu vaccine uptake was associated with better self-reported vaccine knowledge, more positive vaccine attitudes, more trust in the flu vaccine and the vaccine process, higher perceived disease risk, lower perceived risk of vaccine side effects, stronger subjective and moral norms, lower general vaccine hesitancy, higher confidence in the flu vaccine, and lower perceived barriers. Logistic regression results highlighted other significant differences among the groups, emphasizing areas to target for improved vaccination rates. We find great diversity within the Black community related to influenza immunization decisions, highlighting the need to “break down the monolith” in future research.
- ItemCharacterizing Trends in Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Discourse on Reddit (2007-2015): An Observational Study(JMIR Publications, 2019) Yama, Yuki; Hu, Dian; Jamison, Amelia; Quinn, Sandra Crouse; Broniatowski, David A.Background: Despite the introduction of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination as a preventive measure in 2006 for cervical and other cancers, uptake rates remain suboptimal, resulting in preventable cancer mortality. Social media, widely used for information seeking, can influence users’ knowledge and attitudes regarding HPV vaccination. Little is known regarding attitudes related to HPV vaccination on Reddit (a popular news aggregation site and online community), particularly related to cancer risk and sexual activity. Examining HPV vaccine–related messages on Reddit may provide insight into how HPV discussions are characterized on forums online and influence decision making related to vaccination. Objective: We observed how the HPV vaccine is characterized on Reddit over time and by user gender. Specifically, this study aimed to determine (1) if Reddit messages are more related to cancer risks or sexual behavior and (2) what other HPV vaccine–related discussion topics appear on Reddit. Methods: We gathered all public Reddit comments from January 2007 to September 2015. We manually annotated 400 messages to generate keywords and identify salient themes. We then measured the similarity between each comment and lists of keywords associated with sexual behavior and cancer risk using Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA). Next, we used Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) to characterize remaining topics within the Reddit data. Results: We analyzed 22,729 messages containing the strings hpv or human papillomavirus and vaccin. LSA findings show that HPV vaccine discussions are significantly more related to cancer compared with sexual behavior from 2008 to 2015 (P<.001). We did not find a significant difference between genders in discussions of cancer and sexual activity (P>.05). LDA analyses demonstrated that although topics related to cancer risk and sexual activity were both frequently discussed (16.1% and 14.5% of word tokens, respectively), the majority of online discussions featured other topics. The most frequently discussed topic was politics associated with the vaccine (17.2%). Other topics included HPV disease and/or immunity (13.5%), the HPV vaccine schedule (11.5%), HPV vaccine side effects (9.7%), hyperlinks to outside sources (9.1%), and the risks and benefit of HPV vaccination (8.5%). Conclusions: Reddit discourse on HPV vaccine encompasses a broad range of topics among men and women, with HPV political debates and cancer risk making up the plurality of the discussion. Our findings demonstrated that women and men both discussed HPV, highlighting that Reddit users do not perceive HPV as an issue that only pertains to women. Given the increasing use of social media as a source of health information, these results can inform the development of targeted online health communication strategies to promote HPV vaccination to young adult users of Reddit. Analyzing online discussions on Reddit can inform health communication efforts by identifying relevant, important HPV-related topics among online communities.
- ItemA gestational vulnerability window for smoking exposure and the increased risk of preterm birth: how timing and intensity of maternal smoking matter(BioMed Central, 2019-04-16) Kondracki, Anthony; Hofferth, Sandra; Hofferth, SandraBackground: Reducing the incidence of preterm birth is a national priority. Maternal cigarette smoking is strongly and consistently associated with preterm birth. The objective of this study was to examine prenatal exposure based on combined measures of timing (by trimester) and intensity level (the number of cigarettes smoked per day) of maternal smoking to identify a pregnancy period with the highest risk of preterm birth. Methods: A sample of 2,485,743 singleton births was drawn from the 2010 National Center of Health Statistics (NCHS) linked birth/infant death file of US residents in 33 states that implemented the revised 2003 birth certificate. Nine mutually exclusive smoking status categories were created to assess prenatal exposure across pregnancy in association with preterm birth. Gestational age was based on the obstetric estimate. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to compare the odds of preterm birth among women who smoked at different intensity levels in the second or third trimester with those who smoked only in the first trimester. Results: Overall, 7.95% of women had a preterm birth; 8.90% of low intensity (less than a pack/day) smokers in the first trimester only, 12.99% of low and 15.38% of high intensity (pack a day or more) smokers in the first two trimesters, and 10.56% of low and 11.35% of high intensity smokers in all three trimesters delivered preterm. First and second trimester high (aOR 1.85, 95% CI: 1.66, 2.06) and low intensity smokers (aOR 1.51, 95% CI: 1.41, 1.61) had higher odds of preterm birth compared to those who smoked less than a pack a day only in the first trimester, but the odds did not increase for all three trimester smokers relative to the first and second trimester smokers. In sensitivity analysis, adjustment for exposure misclassification error corrected data and testing for effect modification by maternal race/ ethnicity found no significant interaction. Conclusions: This study documented a biologically plausible vulnerability window for smoking exposure and the increased risk of preterm birth. For women who do not modify their smoking behavior preconception, preterm birth risk of smoking remains low until late in the first trimester.
- ItemLatino adolescent-father discrepancies in reporting activity parenting practices and associations with adolescents’ physical activity and screen time(Springer Nature, 2020-01-21) Zhang, Youjie; Baltaci, Aysegul; Overcash, Francine; Druziako, Stephanie; Peralta, Alejandro; Hurtado, Ghaffar Ali; Reicks, MarlaLatino fathers may play important roles in adolescents’ physical activity and screen time. However, informant discrepancies regarding paternal activity parenting practices may challenge studies supporting evidence-based applications. This study examined Latino adolescent-father discrepancies in reporting paternal activity parenting practices, types of discrepancies by participant characteristics, and associations between discrepancy types and adolescents’ physical activity and screen time.
- ItemJoint effects of ethnic enclave residence and ambient volatile organic compounds exposure on risk of gestational diabetes mellitus among Asian/Pacific Islander women in the United States(Springer Nature, 2021-05-08) Williams, Andrew D.; Ha, Sandie; Shenassa, Edmond; Messer, Lynne C.; Kanner, Jenna; Mendola, PaulineAsian/Pacific Islander (API) communities in the United States often reside in metropolitan areas with distinct social and environmental attributes. Residence in an ethnic enclave, a socially distinct area, is associated with lower gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk, yet exposure to high levels of air pollution, including volatile organic compounds (VOCS), is associated with increased GDM risk. We examined the joint effects of ethnic enclaves and VOCs to better understand GDM risk among API women, the group with the highest prevalence of GDM. We examined 9069 API births in the Consortium on Safe Labor (19 hospitals, 2002–2008). API ethnic enclaves were defined as areas ≥66th percentile for percent API residents, dissimilarity (geographic dispersal of API and White residents), and isolation (degree that API individuals interact with another API individual). High levels of 14 volatile organic compounds (VOC) were defined as ≥75th percentile. Four joint categories were created for each VOC: Low VOC/Enclave (reference group), Low VOC/No Enclave, High VOC/Enclave, High VOC/No Enclave. GDM was reported in medical records. Hierarchical logistic regression estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) between joint exposures and GDM, adjusted for maternal factors and area-level poverty. Risk was estimated for 3-months preconception and first trimester exposures. Enclave residence was associated with lower GDM risk regardless of VOC exposure. Preconception benzene exposure was associated with increased risk when women resided outside enclaves [High VOC/No Enclave (OR:3.45, 95%CI:1.77,6.72)], and the effect was somewhat mitigated within enclaves, [High VOC/Enclave (OR:2.07, 95%:1.09,3.94)]. Risks were similar for 12 of 14 VOCs during preconception and 10 of 14 during the first trimester. API residence in non-enclave areas is associated with higher GDM risk, regardless of VOC level. Ethnic enclave residence may mitigate effects of VOC exposure, perhaps due to lower stress levels. The potential benefit of ethnic enclaves warrants further study.
- ItemDifferences in reporting food insecurity and factors associated with differences among Latino fathers and mothers(Springer Nature, 2021-05-13) Nagao-Sato, Sayaka; Druziako, Stephanie; Baltaci, Aysegul; Peralta Reyes, Alejandro Omar; Zhang, Youjie; Hurtado Choque, Ghaffar Ali; Reicks, MarlaFood security status has been assessed as a representative score for households; however, different members in the same household may perceive and report food insecurity differently. A high prevalence of food insecurity has been reported among Latino households, therefore understanding differences in reporting food insecurity by Latino father-mother dyads may improve accuracy of assessment and plans to address food insecurity. This study aimed to 1) determine demographic characteristics and/or food-related factors associated with perceptions of food security status among Latino father-mother dyads, and 2) identify factors associated with discordance in perceptions of food insecurity between dyads. Baseline data were used from a community-based, youth obesity prevention program among Latino families (n = 106 father-mother dyads). Food security was assessed with a 2-item food insecurity screen. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations between reporting food security status and predictor variables for fathers, mothers, and dyad-discordant responses. Food insecurity was reported by 39% of fathers and 55% of mothers. Adjusted odds of reporting food insecurity were significantly higher for fathers perceiving their neighborhood was unsafe vs. safe (OR: 3.7, p < 0.05) and reporting lower vs. higher household income (OR: 3.2, p < 0.05). Adjusted odds of reporting food insecurity were significantly higher for mothers perceiving their neighborhood was unsafe vs. safe (OR: 4.1, p < 0.01) and reporting lower vs. higher home availability of fruit and vegetable (OR: 5.5, p < 0.01). Dyad discordance in reporting food security status occurred in 24% of the dyads. Adjusted odds of dyad discordant reports of food insecurity status were significantly higher for dyads reporting discordant responses regarding previous nutrition education (OR: 3.4, p < 0.05) and higher home fruit and vegetable accessibility (OR: 3.1, p < 0.05) compared to dyads reporting concordant responses. Among the 28 dyads who reported discordant nutrition education participation, 21 reported that fathers had never participated but mothers had participated more than once. Differential factors were associated with reporting food security among Latino father-mother dyads. Nutrition education for fathers that improves awareness of home food supplies and a better understanding of how food accessibility influences maternal perceptions may improve dyad discordance in reporting household food security.
- ItemAgainst the Odds: A Structural Equation Analysis of Family Resilience Processes during Paternal Incarceration(MDPI, 2021-11-04) Morgan, Amy A.; Arditti, Joyce A.; Dennison, Susan; Frederiksen, SigneOn any given day, approximately 2.1 million children in Europe have an incarcerated parent. Although research indicates that material hardship is associated with parental incarceration, and particularly paternal incarceration, little is known about family processes that may mitigate the harmful effects of such hardship on children with an incarcerated parent. Guided by a resilience framework, this study examined how family processes mediate the effects of material hardship on youth academic adjustment within the context of paternal incarceration. Using Danish data that assessed key family constructs, structural equation modeling was used to perform a mediational within-group analysis of primary caregivers (n = 727) to children with an incarcerated father. Results indicate that although social support and parenting skills did not yield mediating effects, caregiver mental health strongly mediated the effects of material hardship on youth academic adjustment during paternal incarceration. Findings suggest that economic conditions, as well as caregiver mental health symptoms, are important areas of intervention that may promote family-level resilience for youth of an imprisoned father. We conclude with research and practice recommendations to advance our understanding of resilience among families with an incarcerated parent.
- ItemThe role of doulas in respectful care for communities of color and Medicaid recipients(Wiley, 2022-06-02) Mallick, Lindsay M.; Thoma, Marie E.; Shenassa, Edmond D.Background Despite the tenets of rights-based, person-centered maternity care, racialized groups, low-income people, and people who receive Medicaid insurance in the United States experience mistreatment, discrimination, and disrespectful care more often than people with higher income or who identify as white. This study aimed to explore the relationship between the presence of a doula (a person who provides continuous support during childbirth) and respectful care during birth, especially for groups made vulnerable by systemic inequality. Methods We used data from 1977 women interviewed in the Listening to Mothers in California survey (2018). Respondents who reported high levels of decision making, support, and communication during childbirth were classified as having “high” respectful care. To examine associations between respectful care and self-reported doula support, we conducted multivariable logistic regressions. Interactions by race/ethnicity and private or Medi-Cal (Medicaid) insurance status were assessed. Results Overall, we found higher odds of respectful care among women supported by a doula than those without such support (odds ratios [OR]: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.0–1.8). By race/ethnicity, the association was largest for non-Hispanic Black women (2.7 [1.1–6.7]) and Asian/Pacific Islander women (2.3 [0.9–5.6]). Doula support predicts higher odds of respectful care among women with Medi-Cal (1.8 [1.3–2.5]), but not private insurance. Conclusions Doula support was associated with high respectful care, particularly for low-income and certain racial/ethnic groups in California. Policies supporting the expansion of doulas for low-income and marginalized groups are consistent with the right to respectful care and may address disparities in maternal experiences.
- ItemAll-Cause Maternal Mortality in the US Before vs During the COVID-19 Pandemic(JAMA Network, 2022-06-28) Thoma, Marie E.; Declercq, Eugene R.The National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) reported an 18.4% increase in US maternal mortality (ie, death during pregnancy or within 42 days of pregnancy) between 2019 and 2020. The relative increase was 44.4% among Hispanic, 25.7% among non-Hispanic Black, and 6.1% among non-Hispanic White women.1 Given a 16.8% increase in overall US mortality in 2020, largely attributed to the COVID-19 pandemic,2 we examined the pandemic’s role in 2020 maternal death rates.
- ItemSpousal Violence and Contraceptive Use among Married Afghan Women in a Nationally Representative Sample(MDPI, 2022-08-09) Ibrahimi, Sahra; Steinberg, Julia R.Objective: Afghanistan is one of the countries with the highest prevalence of spousal violence (56%) and a low prevalence of contraceptive use (23%), yet there is no study assessing how spousal violence is related to contraceptive use, and what methods are most used by women. Therefore, this study examined the association between the number of types of spousal violence and contraceptive use. Method: Using data from 18,985 Afghan married women, aged 15 to 49, who responded to the 2015 Afghanistan Demographic and Health Survey, the current contraceptive method was grouped into five categories: male-involved methods, pills, injectables, long-acting reversible contraception, female sterilization, and Lactation Amenorrhea Method. The number of types of spousal violence in the past 12 months was categorized as none, one type, or two or more types, based on women’s experiences with verbal, physical, and sexual violence. For analysis, binary and multinomial logistic regression were used. Results: After adjusting for the covariates, the experience of any spousal violence was associated with contraception use (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.93, 95% CI: 1.64–2.27, p = 0.0001). Among those using contraception, experiencing two or three types of spousal violence was associated with using pills (adjusted risk ratio (aRRR) = 2.12, 95% CI: 1.63–2.77, p = 0.0001), injections (aRRR = 1.75, 95% CI: 1.26–2.41, p = 0.001), and LAM (aRRR = 3.27, 95% CI: 2.05–5.20, p = 0.0001), compared to male-involved methods. Conclusions: The findings of this study may inform policymakers and program implementers in designing interventions to address the pervasive problem of violence against women, and make pills and injectables more accessible to Afghan women, since these methods are under women’s control and more often used in Afghanistan.
- ItemPadres Preparados, Jóvenes Saludables: intervention impact of a randomized controlled trial on Latino father and adolescent energy balance-related behaviors(Springer Nature, 2022-10-18) Baltaci, A.; Hurtado Choque, G. A.; Davey, C.; Reyes Peralta, A.; Alvarez de Davila, S.; Zhang, Y.; Gold, A.; Larson, N.; Reicks, M.Studies have shown associations among food and activity behaviors and body weight of Latino fathers and adolescents. However, few Latino father-focused interventions have been designed to improve energy balance-related behaviors (EBRBs) and weight status among early adolescents. Thus, this efficacy study aims to evaluate the Padres Preparados, Jóvenes Saludables (Padres) youth obesity prevention program for positive changes in EBRBs (fruit, vegetable, sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB), sweet/salty snack, and fast-food consumption, physical activity, and screen time) and weight status among low-income Latino fathers and adolescents (10-14 years). A two-arm (treatment versus delayed-treatment control group) randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of 8 weekly experiential learning sessions (2.5 hours each) based on social cognitive theory. The sessions included food preparation, parenting skills, nutrition, and physical activity. The program was delivered to father-adolescent dyads (mothers were encouraged to attend) in trusted community-based settings in a Midwest metropolitan area between 2017 and 2019. In March 2020, in-person implementation was discontinued due to COVID-19 pandemic restrictions, which limited the sample size. Father/adolescent dyads were randomized to treatment or control group within each site. Surveys and measurements were completed by fathers and adolescents to assess changes in food and activity behaviors from baseline to post-intervention. Adolescents also completed 24-hour dietary recall interviews at baseline and post-intervention. Intervention effects were assessed using linear regression mixed models adjusted for covariates and accounting for clustering of participants within sites. Data from 147 father/adolescent dyads who completed at least the baseline data collection were used. No significant differences were observed for baseline to post-intervention changes in adolescents’ and fathers’ EBRBs or weight status between treatment and control groups. Fathers’ SSB and fast food intakes were not statistically significant (p = 0.067 and p = 0.090, respectively). The Padres program resulted in no significant improvements in adolescent and father EBRBs and weight status. Additional Latino father-focused interventions are needed to examine intervention effects on EBRBs among Latino adolescents.