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- ItemAdult Education in the Social Planning of a Civic Organization(1934) Hostetler, Alice Watts; Cotterman, H.F.; Education; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)This study deals with adult education in the social planning of a civic organization. The problem is to determine the nature and extent of adult education which is the outgrowth of community planning. The study is made in order to assemble and present in usable form facts which may assist persons promoting adult education, program makers in adult organizations, and community leaders in one line or another of community betterment. More specifically, it is the purpose of the study to examine in detail the work of the Montgomery County Civic Federation of Montgomery County, Maryland, in order to discover the higher forms of adult education of informal types which accrue from the several activities of a single civic organization of recognized influence in a rural-suburban area, as these are manifest in the records of the federation and its member associations, and in changes and developments in this area. The activities of the federation, as recorded in the minutes over eight years of its existence, were examined in detail and classified under five major subjects, each having many minor topics. The major divisions are used as chapter titles and the findings, which include studies made by the federation and developments within the county, are presented under these subjects to reveal the amount and kind of adult education in social planning. The study begins with a description of the locale, Montgomery County, Maryland, which includes its location, history, governmental structure, and population. In Chapter II., the aims, history, structure, and functioning of the Montgomery County Civic Federation are described. The facts revealed by this survey of the eight-year program of the federation and of the area it influences are classified and presented as five chapters dealing with adult education in Public Welfare, County Projects, Public Schools, Government, and Outside the County. The study ends with a summary based on the findings.
- ItemHistory of Public Education in Baltimore from 1860-1890(1943) Krausse, Harry W.; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, MD)Several studies of public education have been made in Maryland and Baltimore; among them being "History of Education in Maryland," "Secondary Education in Maryland before 1800," "Public Educational Work in Baltimore," "Baltimore, 1870 to 1900: Studies in Social History." However, there is no detailed account of the development of the Baltimore City school system covering the period of the Civil War and the years following this war. During this time significant educational hlstory was made as events of great educational importance took place, which events were to affect the future of the Baltimore public schools as well as the future of children attending these schools.
- ItemPrograms and Procedures of Desegregation Developed by the Board of Education, Montgomery County, Maryland(1959) Dunn, Frederick Luther Jr.; Kurtz, John J.; Education; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)The purpose of this study is to identify the programs and procedures developed by the Board of Education and the professional staff of Montgomery County, Maryland, to comply with the Supreme Court rulings declaring unconstitutional the practice of segregated schools. A further purpose is to determine what guideposts were used in dealing with the factors and forces operating to help or hinder such a complex undertaking. The study is a detailed report of the interactions of the laymen and educators to effect this change. It is significant because the program and procedures have been judged successful by County leaders of proponents and opponents of school desegregation. The transition began in September, 1955, and the Board of Education plans for completion in September of 1961. The program enables Negro students to be transferred to schools nearer their homes when adequate classroom space and educational programs are available. A unique procedure provides for Negro students to be transferred to desegregated schools upon recommendation of the Superintendent without a prior request on behalf of the Negro student. The parents of these students were consulted prior to assignment. Students not recommended were permitted to make application on their own initiative. The data of this study reveal: (a) the arguments for and against desegregation as presented in the court cases; (b) procedures used to prepare the educators and laymen for the transition; (c) problems confronted by the Board of Education; (d) surveys and reports on various phases of the program; and (e) an analysis of the factors which contributed to a successful program. Analysis of reports and materials suggest feasible guideposts for an effective program of desegregation. These include: (1) The local board of education is primarily responsible for developing a desegregation program, according to the Supreme Court decisions. (2) Each phase of the desegregation program should be implemented by the local board only after a careful study has been made by the lay and/ or educators. (3) The local board should remain firm in the face of challenges to its decisions, provided, all facts were known at the time the decision was made. (4) The appointment of a professional committee or educator to coordinate the program assists extremists to identify the actual problems confronted in the desegregation process. (5) The local board should inform the laymen and educators as early as possib1e of its programs. (6) The loca1 board provides for a smooth transition when it encourages and facilitates lay and professional preparation. (7) Lay organizations, whether proponents or opponents, assist the local board in complying with the law when they obtain and disseminate accurate information. (8) The role of the educator in the desegregation process should be to assist his board to develop a successful program after the board has decided to proceed. (9) A successful desegregation program necessitates an intensive evaluation of the educational programs and building facilities to determine their adequacy, not for desegregation, but to provide an educational environment conducive to maximum learning for each student. (10) The local board must decide what its policy will be in regard to hiring its employees. The fact that the Board has continued to provide needed classroom facilities and educational programs for students with different learning abilities has led to a constant evaluation of the available educational programs for all students. The study showed that the Board of Education and its professional staff secured the assistance of proponents and opponents of desegregation; this was accomplished by directing their attention toward solving educational problems of the school as opposed to solving the emotional problems of society.
- ItemA Study of International Farm Youth Exchange Delegates Who Visited Latin America(1960) Blum, Lee Ann Leet; Wiggin, Gladys A.; Education; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, MD)A. Statement of Problem The problem of this thesis is to study the nature and prediction of adjustment to foreign culture of 24 American International Farm Youth Exchange delegates. Specifically, this thesis is designed to answer the following questions: 1. What was the nature of adjustment or the 24 subjects as determined through: a. An analysis of a questionnaire administered on return from the foreign visit. b. An analysis of correspondence during the foreign visit. 2. Could the nature or the adjustment have been predicted prior to the foreign visit by materials available in: a. Application form for foreign visits. b. Supplementary biographical data. A secondary purpose of this thesis is to review the literature relating to technical and/or student exchange programs of: 1. Foreign nationals in the United States. 2. Americans in other countries. B. Procedures 1. Selection of the Group from which Population Was Drawn A group of 1010 IFYE delegates who have visited a total of 59 different countries and Puerto Rico was the population from which the sample was drawn. Due to the variety of country cultures represented and the world coverage, it was decided to simplify and centralize the population. The 133 delegates who visited the 18 Latin American countries were selected to represent the group. Latin American countries were selected because of their similar cultural and religious background. Since information on file was to be used in the study, it was essential to select only those del egates with comparable data. Comparable data were available for delegate participants during the years 1955-57. As so limited, the group numbered 64. 2. Criterion for Selecting Population The next step was to determine whe ther the 64 subjects could be categorized at the outset into most and least adjusted to the foreign culture visited, on the basis of material available after return. The answer to question number 19 on the Individual Report Form was selected as the item to be used for categorizing. For categorizing question 19, eight individuals were asked to serve as raters. Four raters had only a slight knowledge of the IFYE program and four raters were past participants in the IFYE program. Each rater was given the group of 64 Individual Report Forms and asked to categorize question 19 in one of three categories. These categories were: (1) Least Adjusted, (2) Medially Adjusted, and (3) Most Adjusted. No criteria were given the rater to influence his placement. The categorizing was used as an attempt to see if a significant pattern could be recognized. For the purpose of this study, it was decided that the following method be used in classifying subjects: a. Each subject must appear in the least adjusted or in the most adjusted category a minimum of four times (which means that at least half of the raters thought that the subject was either least adjusted or most adjusted). b. The subject was not to appear in the least adjusted category if classified in the most adjusted category, and vice versa. c. The subject might appear in the medially adjusted category and still be used for the most or the least adjusted category if qualifications for step (a) listed here were fulfilled. After all raters had completed their categorizing, tabulations were made and it was found that 11 subjects in the least adjusted category and 13 subjects in the most adjusted category could be used in this study. Complete categorizing of the 64 subjects can be found in Appendix A. 3. Procedures for Analysis of Data a. Nature of Adjustment Question number 19 of the Individual Report Form was used to categorize the subjects into groups of most adjusted and least adjusted. The question reads as follows: "Of all things that were new and different to you, which were difficult or disagreeable to adjust to?" The Individual Report Form appears in Appendix B. The 24 subjects' responses to the question appear in Appendix G. Answers were available to all other questions on the report and an analysis will be made in this study of all questions relating to the nature of adjustment. Correspondence received from the delegates while visiting in the foreign country was available in individual files. An analysis of the correspondence indicated that delegates report a variety of news. The nature of news reported is available for study in relationship to the delegates' adjustment in the foreign culture. b. Prediction of Adjustment Adjustment while in the host country is of special interest to the officials of the IFYE program. To be able to predict adjustment of a delegate to his host country before actually participating in the program would be of great value to IFYE. This study is designed to investigate available pre-participation background information on each subject. The available information on file relates to: (1) Delegate Application Form (to be found in Appendix c) and (2) Delegate Biographical Form (to be found in Appendix D). The purposes of this study are to investigate the background information listed above and to test for significant relationship of nature of adjustment in the foreign country.
- ItemA History of the Maryland State Teachers' Association(1964) Ebersole, Benjamin Paul; Wiggin, Gladys A.; Education; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)In 1865 Maryland became the twenty-seventh state to officially inaugurate a state teachers' association. The same law which, in 1865, provided for the first bona fide state educational system placed school officials under legal obligation to aid in organizing and supporting teachers’ association. The Maryland State Teachers’ Association was meant to be an integral part of the educational plan. Sharing the same chronological time span and the same general purposes, the Association and the state educational system were closely related in their development. During the early years the Association was both helped and hindered by school legislation. From 1866 to 1868 it had the benefit of a progressive school law and an active state superintendent. From 1869 to 1899 the inadequate school law and the lack of a full time state superintendent limited the growth of Maryland education and of the Association. Although educational conditions were reviewed and instructional topics discussed, there was little reform. Social and recreational activities were prominent at the annual meetings. During most of the first half of the twentieth century, the Association remained a part time organization, not yet prepared to assume a leadership role among the educational forces in the state. From 1900 to 1920 was a period of reawakening in Maryland education, but the Association did not grasp this opportunity for leadership. Between 1920 and 1941 the Association democratized its business procedures, displayed more interest in the economic welfare of teachers, and supported the advances directed by the state superintendent of schools. Between 1942 and 1951 the Association evolved from an organization with serious limitations to one with a continuing program, a full time staff, a permanent headquarters building, a monthly periodical, and large-scale annual meetings. During the ten years from 1952 to 1962 the MSTA dealt actively with state and national educational problems. It became a chief voice and agent for the state’s educational interests and fought vigorously for what it considered essential to the advancement of education. In 1962 the Association included thirty-six local associations, forty departments, twenty-two committees, six professional staff employees, and 21,425 members. During its history the MSTA had two major purposes: (1) the perpetuation of tax-supported public education and (2) the improvement of the professional and economic status of teachers. To realize these goals, the Association worked closely with other interested groups, especially the state department of education and the parent-teacher organization, in the promotion of legislation improving the welfare of teachers and increasing the state’s financial responsibility for the school system. It followed the lead of the National Education Association in the matters of federal aid, professional negotiations, and teachers’ ethics. Through committee investigations, department discussions, professional staff studies, local associations’ activities, and annual meetings, the Association worked to enhance teacher preparation, improve instructional methods and content, enlighten teachers about school policies and political realities, and in general raise the esprit de corps of both lay and professional people involved or interested in public education. During its history the MSTA has successes and failures. Precisely to what extent it has been instrumental in the advancement of Maryland education is not subject to completely factual evaluation, but it is certain that Maryland education has benefited from the endeavors of the Maryland State Teachers’ Association.
- ItemA History of the Maryland State Teachers' Association(1964) Ebersole, Benjamin P.; Wiggin, Gladys A.; Teaching, Learning, Policy & Leadership; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)In 1865 Maryland became the twenty-seventh state to officially inaugurate a state teachers' association. The same law which, in 1865, provided for the first bona fide state educational system placed school officials under legal obligation to aid in organizing and supporting teachers' associations. The Maryland State Teachers' Association was meant to be an integral part of the educational plan. Sharing the same chronological time span and the same general purposes, the Association and the state educational system were closely related in their development. During the early years the Association was both helped and hindered by school legislation. From 1866 to 1868 it had the benefit of a progressive school law and an active state superintendent. From 1869 to 1899 the inadequate school law and the lack of a full time state superintendent limited the growth of Maryland education and of the Association. Although educational conditions were reviewed and instructional topics discussed, there was little reform. Social and recreational activities were prominent at the annual meetings. During most of the first half of the twentieth century, the Association remained a part time organization, not yet prepared to assume a leadership role among the educational forces in the state. From 1900 to 1920 was a period of re-awakening in Maryland education, but the Association did not grasp this opportunity for leadership. Between 1920 and 1941 the Association democratized its business procedures, displayed more interest in the economic welfare of teachers, and supported the advances directed by the state superintendent of schools. Between 1912 and 1951 the Association evolved from an organization with serious limitations to one with a continuing program, a full time staff, a permanent headquarters building, a monthly periodical, and large-scale annual meetings. During the ten years from 1952 to 1962 the MSTA dealt actively with state and national educational problems. It became a chief voice and agent for the state's educational interests and fought vigorously for what it considered essential to the advancement of education. In 1962 the Association included thirty-six local associations, forty departments, twenty-two committees, six professional staff employees, and 21,425 members. During its history the MSTA had two major purposes: (1) the perpetuation of tax-supported public education and (2) the improvement of the professional and economic status of teachers. To realize these goals, the Association worked closely with other interested groups, especially the state department of education and the parent-teacher organization, in the promotion of legislation improving the welfare of teachers and increasing the state's financial responsibility for the school system. It followed the lead of the National Education Association in the matters of federal aid, professional negotiations , and teachers' ethics. Through committee investigations, department discussions, professional staff studies, local associations' activities, and annual meetings, the Association worked to enhance teacher preparation, improve instructional methods and content , enlighten teachers about school policies and political realities, and in general raise the esprit de corps of both lay and professional people involved or interested in public education. During its history the MSTA had successes and failures. Precisely to what extent it has been instrumental in the advancement of Maryland education is not subject to completely factual evaluation, but it is certain that Maryland education has benefited from the endeavors of the Maryland State Teachers ' Association.
- ItemThe Relationship between Overt Verbal Attitude Responses toward Cheating Behavior, Achievement Needs, and Cheating on Test Items(1967) Alvernaz Mulcahy, Gloria Lorraine; Lawson, John R.; Human Development & Quantitative Methodology; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between overt verbal attitude responses of college students toward cheating behavior, achievement needs, and cheating behavior on test items. A further purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between grades and/or the number of errors made on an exam and cheating or non-cheating behavior. Procedure: The sample was comprised of sixty-six subjects-thirty- three cheaters and thirty-three non-cheaters. A stratified random sample was drawn from 184 students in six sections of Education 110 classes at the University of Maryland. The cheaters were matched with a group of noncheaters by sex and class. The data was obtained in three separate experimental sessions. During the first session a 35 item multiple-response attitude measure was administered to the subjects during the usual class period. Attitude toward cheating in a college setting was assessed utilizing an instrument developed by the writer in a pilot study. The second experimental session occurred one week after the presentation of the attitude measure. The McClelland n Achievement measure was administered using a set of four TAT-type pictures used to elicit imaginative stories which could be scored for the presence or absence of achievement related imagery. The third experimental session occurred two weeks after the administration of the n Achievement measure. During the third session the professor was absent from class by prior arrangement. The writer presented a twenty minute taped lecture which focused upon elementary statistical concepts. Immediately following the taped lecture the subjects were administered a 30 item multiple-response test. Subjects were provided with an opportunity to exhibit cheating behavior in a classroom setting while correcting their own examination papers after a copy of their original responses was surreptitiously recorded. Findings: 1. There were no differences in verbal attitude responses toward cheating behavior between subjects who exhibited cheating behavior and those who did not. 2. There were no differences in achievement needs between subjects who exhibited cheating behavior and those who did not. 3. There were differences in the number of errors made by subjects who exhibited cheating behavior and those who did not. 4. There were no differences in grades between subjects who exhibited cheating behavior and those who did not. 5. There were no differences in cheating and noncheating behavior between subjects who scored high and low on a verbal (written) measure of attitudes toward cheating. 16. There were no differences in cheating and noncheating behavior bet ween subjects with high and low need achievement scores.
- ItemAn Investigation of the Relationship Between Fifth-Grade Student and Teacher Performance on Selected Tasks Involving Nonmetric Geometry(1968) Moody, William Braun; Walbesser, Henry H.; Education; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)Statement of the Problem: This study investigated the relationship between teacher and student performance on selected mathematical tasks. A measure of teacher effectiveness was obtained by comparing teacher and student performance on identical geometric tasks. Procedure: Teachers and their students from nineteen fifth-grade classes were designated as either control or experimental subjects. The six control treatment classes were presented topics in nonmetric geometry by means of self-instructional reading materials. The thirteen experimental treatment classes were presented the same topics by their teachers without the use of the reading materials. The duration of the instructional period consisted of four, fifty minute class periods. A criterion test, consisting of selected geometric tasks, was administered as a pre-test and post - test to the students of the control and experimental classes. The same test was administered to the teachers of the experimental classes at the conclusion of the instructional period. The hypothesis that students who read instructional materials in mathematics on their own will perform as well on selected tasks as those who have teachers explain and interpret the content for them was tested by comparing class mean scores. A second hypothesis questioned the relationship between the level of teacher performance on selected tasks and the level of performance exhibited by his students on these tasks. This hypothesis was examined by correlating the teacher scores on the criterion test with the mean scores of the classes in the experimental treatment. The relationship between teacher and student performance on individual tasks appearing on the criterion test was examined by comparing correct and incorrect item responses selected by teachers and students. A comparison of the proportion of student incorrect responses for classes whose teachers missed an item, with the proportion of student incorrect responses for classes whose teachers correctly responded to a particular item, was made by applying the chi square statistic to response frequencies. A similar procedure investigated the relationship between particular incorrect teacher response and student response. This aspect of the study investigated the effect of the teacher on student performance by comparing teacher and student behavior on individual tasks. Results: The reliability coefficient obtained for the criterion test was 0.72 as determined by the Kuder-Richardson formula 20. An estimate of item reliability was obtained and sixteen of the twenty-five test items exhibited acceptable reliability measures. The results of the analyses are summarized as follows: (1) An analysis of variance revealed that the mean score for the experimental classes was significantly higher than for the control classes at the 0.01 level; (2) there was a significant positive correlation between teacher test scores and class mean scores on the criterion test at the 0.02 level; (3) upon testing for independence of student and teacher selection of correct and incorrect responses to a particular item on the criterion test, ten of twenty-two items revealed a significant chi square at less than the 0.01 level. Items which exhibited a relationship between student and teacher performance either required a direct recall or application of a single definition presented in the materials; and (4) all but three of sixteen chi squares, which were not significant at less than the 0.10 level, supported the independence of teacher and student selection of a particular incorrect response to an item on the criterion test. Conclusions: It was concluded that:(l) There is no support for the hypothesis that students who read materials in mathematics on their own will perform as well on selected tasks as those who have teachers explain and interpret the content for them; (2) there is support for the hypothesis that if a teacher performs at a certain level of success on selected mathematical tasks, then his students, following instruction, will perform at the same level on these tasks; (3) there is a relationship between student and teacher correct and incorrect performance on selected tasks involving the direct identification and application of a single definition. No evidence was found of a relationship for tasks which require a combination of the application of two or more definitions; and (4) there is no relationship between teacher and student selection of a particular incorrect response to a task on the criterion test.
- ItemThe Effects of an Integrated Learning Sequence on the Acquisition and Retention of Mathematics and Science Behaviors in Grade Five(1970) Gray, William Lee; Walbesser, Henry H.; Education; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)For many years, educators have used the relationship between mathematics and science in the teaching of both subjects. Science examples have been introduced into mathematics programs and often with the intention of facilitating the acquisition of mathematics behaviors. In other cases, mathematics behaviors assumed necessary for the acquisition of certain quantitative science behaviors are taught prior to the presentation of the quantitative science behaviors. There is some support for the notion that teaching the mathematics behaviors assumed necessary for the science behaviors facilitates the acquisition of the science behaviors. In this experiment, a comparison is made of the effectiveness of two l earning sequences in facilitating the acquisition and retention of certain mathematics and science behaviors. In one l earning sequence, the related mathematics and science behaviors are integrated; in the other sequence, they are not. It was hypothesized that the integrated sequence facilitates the acquisition and retention of the mathematics and science behaviors more than the non-integrated sequence. Three quantitative science behaviors were chosen as the final objectives of the learning sequence. By means of a task analysis procedure, twenty-two objectives were identified as prerequisite for the three terminal objectives. The twenty-five behaviors were then structured in a hierarchy. The three terminal objectives were placed at the top of the hierarchy. The subordinate behaviors were arranged below the terminal objectives in an order suggested by the analysis. This hierarchy was used as a guide in the construction of the two learning sequences. Each of the twelve lesson sequences was designed to promote the acquisition of the behaviors included in the hierarchy. A test was constructed which consisted of assessment items designed to test acquisition of each of the mathematics and science behaviors in the hierarchy. This test was administered on two occasions; once, on the day following completion of the learning sequence and, again, nine weeks later. Nine hundred students in thirty fifth-grade classes in the Baltimore County Public Schools completed all facets of the experiment. The classes were randomly assigned to one of the two sequences. An analysis of variance procedure was used on the class means to test the acquisition and retention of the mathematics and science behaviors. The following results were noted: The coefficient of stability for the criterion measure was 0.79; The coefficient of internal consistency was 0.81; The integrated sequence produced a significantly higher overall performance than the non-integrated sequence in acquisition of the mathematical behaviors although there were no significant differences in the effects of the sequence on the rate of forgetting; The two treatments had no differential effects on the overall performance or the rate of forgetting with regard to the science behaviors. It was concluded that the integrated learning sequence was generally superior to the non-integrated sequence in facilitating acquisition of the mathematical behaviors for the population defined in this study. It could not be established that the two sequences had differential effects on the rate of forgetting of the mathematics or science behaviors. The results and conclusions suggest that further consideration should be given to the use of integrated learning sequences as an instruction strategy.
- ItemClient Perceptions of Psychotherapists: An Analogue Study(1970) Campbell, Terence W.; Goering, Jacob D.; Education; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)In the last decade, an impressive body of empirical evidence has accumulated which strongly suggests that psychotherapy outcome is a function of the levels of therapeutic conditions expressed by the therapist during the course of therapy. The empirically established role of these "levels of therapeutic conditions" (LTC) in determining process movement and therapy outcome suggested that they deserved and demanded systematic investigation in their own right as dependent variables. The primary concern of this investigation, then, was to determine whether LTC varied in its expression across therapists, and its perception across clients. It was hypothesized that psychotherapeutic orientation and client interpersonal style interact in determining client perceptions of psychotherapists. The experimental design developed for this study was a modification of Strupp's (1962) analogue procedure. Measures of interpersonal style-using Schutz's FIRO-B (1966)--were gathered from 378 college students at the University of Maryland. Approximately a week later, the Ss were randomly assigned to view one of the films in the film series Three Approaches to Psychotherapy. Immediately after viewing the film, the Ss were instructed to complete Barrett-Lennard's Relationship-Inventory in regards to how they would perceive the therapists if they were working with him as a client. The data were analyzed by means of analysis of variance procedures. The design was a 3 x 3 x 2 factorial analysis of variance (three therapeutic orientations x three client interpersonal styles x client sex). The first order interaction between therapists and clients was not significant (p <.240). However, the second order interaction (therapeutic orientation x client interpersonal style x client sex) did approach significance (p < .065), indicating that the first order therapist x client interaction was differential by sex. Subsequent analyses of variance were performed separately for males and females. For females, the therapist x client interaction was significant (p < .05), but this interaction was not significant for the male data. In discussing these results, two points were emphasized: (1) Those therapist behaviors which were perceived as facilitative and favorable by some clients, were not necessarily perceived as such by other clients; (2) The sources of variance in client perceptions were not as attributable to either therapist or client effects by themselves, as they were attributable to the interactive, system effects of the therapist-client dyads. Furthermore, the differential interaction effects between therapist and client variables and client sex were discussed in the context of sex-roles as conventionally defined at a societal level. Finally, the psychotherapeutic and research implications of the study, and its limitations, were considered.
- ItemThe Effects of Operant Conditioning of Study Behavior Among Academically Deficient College Sophomores(1970) Reed, M. Douglas; Magoon, Thomas M.; Counseling, Higher Education & Special Education; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)Operant conditioning procedures were utilized to assure the successful surveying study behavior of four black academically deficient college sophomores. They were asked to watch and listen to a video-taped lecture on surveying: the reading aloud, in order, of all bold-faced headings and the first sentence under each heading throughout the assigned work increments. Typical college textbook material was used for greater relevance. The students were diagnosed by pre-experimental records and observation, as academically deficient and void of survey study behavior. The experiment was conducted in a room specially designed for video taping and recording the subjects' behavior. Trained student experimenters supervised the experiment from an adjacent room where the subjects' performance was observed by TV monitor and heard by earphones. The subjects sat at a desk which had on it a study light which they could see and a large clock, the face of which they could not see. On the clock face was a small light which was not visible to the subjects. Together with the subjects, the study light, synchronized with the clock and its light were videotaped from the room in which the experimenters were stationed through an opening in the wall. Two of the subjects (one male and one female) were randomly assigned to be reinforced and the other two were not reinforced. Reinforcement consisted of the study light coming on (under the control of the experimenters) when appropriate topic sentences were vocalized properly. The light remained on until inappropriate topic sentences were read (additions) or appropriate ones were skipped (omissions). When either occurred the study light was turned off until appropriate text material was read. Most of the time the light remained on, since appropriate behavior most often was emitted. The clock light was synchronized with the study light. Non-reinforced subjects did not know when their behavior was appropriate, since reinforcement (the study light) was withheld. Whenever they emitted appropriate behavior, however, the clock light was turned on for purposes of analysis. The experimenters tallied the numbers of surveying or acquisition omissions and additions by means of noting the time on the clock face when the light was on or off. Surveying time was tallied also. After surveying each of the 25 chapters comprised of 636 appropriate topic sentences, the subjects were given mimeographed tests. These contained true statements incorporating all the topic sentences in that increment as well as others incorporating distracters, or inappropriate topic sentences. The tests measured the subjects' ability to discern and mark the appropriate material. Performances showed that as designed, the reinforced subjects Were under stimulus control of the study light. Reinforcement of surveying behavior following a lecture on the subject was more effective than a lecture without reinforcement. That is to say that the reinforced subjects, as hypothesized, made significantly fewer surveying omissions and performed better on the tests. There was little difference in surveying additions since few were made under either condition. Contrary to the hypotheses the time required for surveying was usually longer for the reinforced subjects since they were under stimulus control of the light. Student experimenters were demonstrated as capable supervisors of the experiment. Video-taping proved to be a highly reliable objective means of maintaining continuous records.
- ItemThe Effect of a Sub-culturally Appropriate Language upon Achievement in Mathematical Content(1970) Knight, Genevieve M.; Walbesser, Henry H.; Mathematics Education; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)In this investigation one hypothesis was considered. The question--does the use of a sub-culturally appropriate language have an effect upon achievement in an academic content--was tested. The subjects used in this investigation were children in a Follow Through Program in a school which is located in a disadvantaged neighborhood. None of the subjects had been in school for more than three years. The sample was a typical representation of the enrollment of schools in the city of Washington , D.C.-- 98 percent of the subjects were black. The instructional sequence was composed of concepts from nonmetric geometry. The language patterns used for the sub-culturally appropriate language were obtain ed from a two-year study in the speech-community of the given school. These language patterns were analyzed and classified by the Center for Applied Linguistics. After the instructional sequence was constructed, a parallel instructional sequence was rewritten in a subculturally appropriate language. Two groups of randomly assigned subjects were taught the appropriate sequence and given appropriate assessment tasks. The subjects taught and assessed using a subculturally appropriate language were able to successfully perform more task on the assessment task than those subjects who were taught and assessed using standard language. Hence, there exists some evidence to support the hypothesis that a sub-culturally appropriate language does have some effect upon achievement in academic content. The hypothesis was supported at the 0.05 level of significance. These findings suggest that further research is needed for the identification of contributing variables and the degree of interaction of each of these variables.
- ItemINTERACTION BETWEEN TIME AND VERBAL FLUENCY: A BEHAVIORAL MODEL FOR REDUCING AGGRESSIVE(1971) Brinson, Leslie Clay; Lawrence, Richard; Counseling, Higher Education & Special Education; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)This investigation was undertaken for the purpose of critically evaluating the contributions of two variables, time in therapy and verbal fluency, believed important to counseling outcomes. In addition, the study attempted to test the efficiency with which a behavioral model designed specifically for reducing aggressive behaviors, reduces overt and covert aggression of delinquent boys. The consideration that directly prompted the development of the investigation was the researcher's observations that few research studies have been organized that systematically and rigorously measure the therapeutic efficacy of counseling techniques and methods wit minority groups, particularly young, black delinquents; for no study could be found that related these variables of time and verbal fluency to counseling outcomes with this carefully drawn sample. The criteria for selecting subjects to be included in the study were that each subject be an adjudicated delinquent and must have committed a crime of a magnitude sufficient to result in being incarcerated for more than ninety days. This period of incarceration must have been in progress during the time counseling was offered. To satisfy this criterion, students from a residential center for young delinquent boys were selected. By treating these subjects it could be assumed that any change in aggressive behaviors might well have resulted from treatment effects in that the residents were subjected to similar stimuli and were randomly assigned to treatment groups. The analysis of the data was accomplished through the use of a two-way analysis of variance which was representative of a 2x4 factorial design with four levels of time forming the vertical dimension and the two levels of client verbal fluency forming the horizontal dimension. The level of significance was set at .05, a level at which all four hypotheses were tested. Since specific questions were raised prior to the initiation of the experiment, the method of paired comparison was the dictated strategy for analyzing the data statistically. The actual statistical tools used were the t and F tests. It was observed that the raw data (gain scores derived via ______ the differences between ____ of pre and post testing) were skewed in a form that threatened the power of the design; thus, as a corrective measure, the data were transformed through the use of a square root transgeneration. It was found that a statistical significant difference existed between clients' mean gain scores for 0 hour of counseling and the average of 3, 6, and 9 hours of counseling. This finding held only when the criterion was the overt aggression which compared the effects of the behavior model to the effects of no counseling at all. A second finding was that a significant linear trend was found across the means of the treatment dimension representing time. Again, this finding held only when the criterion was the overt aggression measure. Statistical analysis of the data fail to support any hypotheses regarding significant effects of interaction and verbal fluency for either the overt or covert measures. With respect to the variable of time, the paradoxical findings were that subjects counseled via the behavioral model for 3, 6, and 9 hours actually showed increments of aggression or the overt measurement scale when compared to the control group which received no counseling. Further, the findings regarding trends in the data were that there were significant linear trends that characterized the data; however, these trends were in a negative direction which lends to the conclusion that the mean gains of aggression were larger as clients' time in counseling increased. It is therefore concluded that the behavioral model was an ineffective method of successfully working with the selected sample of young, black delinquents in terms of reducing their manifest aggression. More pointedly, according to the evidence at hand, this model has a deleterious effect on clients in that their aggression increases with the use of it. The second variable under study, verbal fluency, did not affect clients' outcomes in therapy on either criterion. Accordingly, clients identified as having high verbal fluency make no more gains in therapy than those identified as having low verbal fluency. There were no statistical significant interaction effects.
- ItemFrustration Tolerance, Aggression and Intervention Methods for a Population of Non-Institutionalized Offenders(1972) Hecker, Benson; Lawrence, Richard E.; Counseling, Higher Education & Special Education; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)Although group counseling procedures have been researched extensively for institutionalized offender populations, literature concerning group counseling with non-institutionalized offenders has been less evident. In addition, much confusion exists in the literature with regard to frustration tolerance, and the acquisition and modification of aggressive behavior. For the purposes of this research, frustration tolerance as outlined by Saul Rosenzweig and the theoretical base of social learning in the acquisition of aggressive behavior, were utilized . In sum, this study was designed to investigate three treatment methods and their effects on frustration tolerance and aggression for a population of non-institutionalized offenders. Thirty-nine clients under the supervision of the United States District Court for the District of Columbia were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups. The treatment exposures consisted of: a) psychodrama and group counseling; b) films , audio-visual and group discussion; and c) normal probation and/or parole supervision as outlined by the Courts. The Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration Study and the Berea College Form Board were used as pre-test and as post-test measures for subjects in all three treatment groups. A Behavioral Rating Scale was developed to be used with the Berea College Form Board which consisted of 21 identifiable and/or definable physical and verbal behaviors. Computation of two Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients resulted in .71 for the pre-test and .83 for the post-test when comparisons were made between judges ratings on the Behavioral Ra ting Scale of subject's aggressive behaviors. Analysis of covariance with pre-test scores used as covariates was used in the analysis of the data. Results of the analysis were as follows: (1) There were no significant differences in mean scores between the three treatment groups in the acquisition of appropriate behaviors as measured on the (E), (I), (M) and (GCR) dimensions of the Rosenzweig Picture- Frustration Study. (2) There were no significant differences in mean scores between the three treatment groups in the acquisition of appropriate behaviors as measured on the Behavioral Rating Scale. While an analysis of the quantitative data does not support the use of psychodrama and group counseling, and the use of films and/ or audio-visual aids and group discussion as treatment methods to be used in the acquisition of appropriate behaviors, examination of the qualitative progress reports lend support to its continued use as treatment methods with offender populations. Meaningful relationships with probation officers and other group members were established, and in addition, "group members were able to look at themselves and discuss some of their problems." Further research, however, is recommended using similar techniques so that the effectiveness of this approach can be better evaluated.
- ItemAn Examination of the Effects of Three Testing Techniques on Word Accuracy, Comprehension, Rate, and Percentages of Semantic Substitutions in Oral Reading(1972) Stafford, Gerald Edward; Sullivan, Dorothy D.; Early Childhood Elementary Education; University of Maryland (College Park, Md); Digital Repository at the University of MarylandAuthoritative opinion of long standing has recommended that purposes for reading be established prior to reading. In spite of such recommendations, testing procedures for oral reading typically have not involved reading for purposes. Furthermore, research designed to examine the effectiveness of reading for purposes has generally produced divergent findings. Superior reading performance has been observed when purposes for reading were established prior to reading as well as when they were not established prior to reading. Moreover, research designed to examine the effectiveness of purposeful reading has been confined almost exclusively to the area of silent reading. To date not a single investigation has been found which clearly illustrated the effects of purposes for reading on oral reading performance. The present study was designed to investigate the relationships between three testing techniques and performance on four dimensions of oral reading performance. The three testing techniques employed in this study were identified as (1) careful reading, (2) reading for specific purposes, and (3) reading for general purposes. The four dimensions of oral reading performance on which comparisons were made involved oral reading word accuracy, comprehension, rate, and the percentages of semantic substitutions. The four research hypotheses examined in the investigation are stated as follows: 1. There is a difference in oral reading word accuracy under the treatments careful reading, reading for specific purposes, and reading for general purposes for third and sixth graders. 2. There is a difference in oral reading comprehension under the treatments careful reading, reading for specific purposes, and reading for general purposes for third and sixth graders. 3. There is a difference in oral reading rate under the treatments careful reading, reading for specific purposes, and reading for general purposes for third and sixth graders. 4. There is a difference in the percentages of semantic substitutions made under the treatments careful reading, reading for specific purposes and reading for general purposes for third and sixth graders. To obtain data for this study, forty-five third grade and forty-five sixth grade subjects were randomly selected from two elementary schools. The ninety subjects chosen for the study were then randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups. Each subject was requested to read orally in the manner dictated by the treatment group to which he had been assigned. The materials from which subjects read were the appropriate passages from Form A of the Gilmore Oral Reading Test (1852). Measurements for oral reading word accuracy, comprehension, rate, and percentages of semantic substitutions were computed for each subject. A 2x3 analysis of variance design was used to test for differential treatment effects. An analysis of the data from the study indicted that none of the research hypotheses was supported at the .05 level of significance. The present study led to recommendations in the areas of theory, diagnosis, teaching, and research. Authoritative opinion has suggested that many of the classification schemes used for analyzing oral reading errors are a theoretical. It is possible that performance differences not evidenced through the classification scheme employed in this study could be found using a classification scheme having a sounder theoretical basis. It was therefore recommended that the effects of the three treatments employed in this study be reexamined using a classification scheme built around a theory of reading. In contrast to investigation in the area of silent reading, the present study did not evidence differences in reading performance under the treatments employed. The failure of oral reading performance to vary in the manner observed for silent reading suggested that the two forms of reading are in some respects dissimilar. It was therefore recommended that that diagnostic procedures include measures of both oral and silent reading . Recent investigation has suggested that children often need greater skill in reading for different purposes. One possible explanation for why differential treatment effects were not obtained in the present study was that subjects did not have skill in reading for different purposes. The recommendation was made, therefore, that classroom teachers place greater. emphasis on teaching children to read for different purposes. The following recommendations were made for the area of research. (1) It was recommended that research be undertaken to develop measures of oral reading comprehension, rate, and percentages of semantic substitutions which have greater test-retest reliability. (2) The sample chosen for this study was restricted to third and sixth graders whose performance on a standardized silent reading test placed them in the second or third quartile of the normative population. A replication of this study using subjects from other grade and performance levels was recommended. (3) It was recommended that investigation be undertaken to further examine the relationships between oral and silent reading. Special consideration should be given to identifying those factors in which a satisfactory generalization from oral reading to silent reading can be made. (4) This study did not evidence differential treatment effects using reading materials and purposes for reading supplied by an examiner. It was recommended that investigation be undertaken to examine the effectiveness of using pupil-selected materials and pupil purposes for reading.
- ItemIncreasing Vocational Information Seeking Behaviors of High School Students(1972) Redmond, Ronald E.; Byrne, Richard Hill; Counseling and Personnel Services; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)This study was an outgrowth of previous research which investigated reinforcement techniques used to increase the frequency of vocational information seeking behaviors (VISB). Based on the Larramore (1971) finding that subjects (Ss) intended but did not always carry out the suggested vocational information seeking behaviors (VISB), it became apparent that additional research was required to increase the actual performance of certain career seeking behaviors. This research was designed to evaluate the reinforcing effects of the Self-Directed Search (SDS, Holland, 1970) and contingency contracts on the frequency of VISB performed by high school Ss. It was assumed that the administration of the Self-Directed Search (SDS) followed by a contingency contract would increase the performance of a greater number of VISB than the administration of the SDS alone.
- ItemMinimal Brain Dysfunction with Hyperactivity: a Comparison of the Behavioral and Cognitive Effects of Pharmacological and Behavioral Treatments(1973) Bradbard, Gail Susan; Pumroy, Donald K.; Department of Counseling, Higher Education, and Special Education; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)It was the aim of the study: to compare the behavioral and cognitive effects of pharmacological and behavioral therapies in the short-term, clinical treatment of minimal brain dysfunction; and, to compare the behavioral and cognitive effects of stimulant (methylphenidate) and antidepressant (imipramine) drugs in the short-term, clinical treatment of minimal brain dysfunction. Twenty-nine boys, ranging in age from 6 through 12 years, with the diagnosis of minimal brain dysfunction with hyperactivity, were randomly assigned to three treatment groups: imipramine, methylphenidate, or behavior modification. The total time of treatment for each child was 6 weeks. For subjects within the imipramine and methylphenidate groups, medication dosage was individually titrated by a child psychiatrist. (Range: 75- 150 mg/daily of imipramine, 10- JO mg/daily of methylphenidate.) Parents of subjects within the behavior modification group individually met with an experimenter l hour per week. Behavioral principles were discussed, problem behaviors targeted, and behavioral programs devised for implementation during the treatment period. Subjects assigned to behavior modification were also individually seen once weekly. The first part of a session focused on behavioral control, following the method of behavior rehearsal. Working from problem areas targeted by parents, the subjects and experimenter discussed specific encounters, and then reenacted these incidents, rehearsing alternative, adaptive behaviors. The second part of a session was devoted to cognitive control, with training in self-directed verbal commands instituted. On tasks of trail making, matching pictures, and embedded figures, subjects verbally cued themselves to delay and to consider requirements before attempting a solution, with reinforcement contingent upon responses correct on initial trial. For all groups, prior to and following treatment, behavioral and cognitive measures were obtained: parents completed a behavior rating scale, the Parent's Questionnaire; teachers completed the School Report, assessing behavior and academic achievement; and subjects were administered a battery of psychological tests which included the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Wide Range Achievement Test, Porteus Maze Test, Bender Gestalt Test, Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration, and Draw-APerson. Analysis of the data from teachers' global ratings of behavior indicated the superiority of pharmacological treatment in comparison with behavioral treatment. Within the cognitive area, based on teachers' global ratings of academic achievement and the Porteus Maze Test, pharmacological treatment was again shown superior. Isolating specific group effects, contributing to the major portion of the variance between pharmacological and behavioral treatments was the superiority of methylphenidate to behavior modification. Further research was felt necessary concerning the therapeutic comparability or lack of comparability of imipramine and behavior modification treatments. Between imipramine and methylphenidate treatments, based on teachers' ratings of hyperactivity and global ratings of both behavior and academic achievement, differential effects, in favor of methylphenidate, were suggested. Thus, the comparability of imipramine and methylphenidate treatments in terms of both behavioral and cognitive effects was felt to be in question. Results were discussed in terms of the bounds of the design, procedure, and measurements. Qualifications were noted concerning statistical power, Type I error, the relative rather than absolute efficacy of the treatments, and the validity of the measurements. Application and research implications were presented. The need for continued research into the application of behavioral programs with MBD children, both independent of and in conjunction with pharmacological treatment, was stressed, with suggestions provided as to the clinic-based and, to a limited extent, school-based implementation of such programs.
- ItemThe Effects of Student Decision Making Upon Spelling Achievement and Attitude Toward the Spelling Curriculum(1973) Gambrell, Linda B.; Wilson, Robert M.; Early Childhood Elementary Education; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether spelling achievement and attitude toward the spelling curriculum differ under three different approaches to decision making i n the spelling curriculum. The three different approaches to decision making were: (1) teacher decision making (T1), (2) combination teacher and student decision making (T2), and (J) student decision making (T3). With respect to the three different approaches to decision making , the second purpose of the study was to determine whether spelling achievement and attitude toward spelling were differentially affected by grade level . The population was forty volunteer teachers and their classrooms in Prince Georges County, Maryland. Each third, fourth, and fifth grade classroom was randomly assigned to one of the three treatment groups. In T1 the teacher made decisions for students concerning the spelling content and spelling study methods, in T2 the students made decisions concerning the spelling content and the teacher made decisions concerning study methods, and in T3 the students made decisions concerning both the content and study methods related to the spelling curriculum. In this study student decision making was implemented through the use of a contracting procedure. Data for this study consisted of four scores for each student: (1) Spelling Achievement Test (pretest), ( 2) Spelling Achievement Test (post-test), (J) tabulation of total number of words spelled correctly on weekly spelling tests, and (4) Spelling Attitude Scale. Classroom mean scores provided the basic data for analysis. The data were analyzed by means of analysis of variance and covariance procedures employing a J x J factorial design. The following conclusions were supported: (1) There is no difference in spelling achievement under (a) teacher decision making (T1), (b) combination teacher and student decision making (T2) , and (c) student decision making (T3). (2) There is no interaction effect between the different degrees of student decision making and grade levels on spelling achievement . (J) There is no difference in attitude toward the spelling curriculum under the three different degrees of student decision making. (4) There is no interaction effect between the different degrees of student decision making and grade levels in attitude toward the spelling curriculum. The following implication for theory was suggested by this investigations Student decision making appears to result in student achievement and attitude that is equivalent to that under teacher decision making in the spelling curriculum. Students appear to be effective in determining content and study methods in the spelling curriculum. Theorjes of decision making must be developed which deal with decision making as it relates to the learning process. The data suggest the following implications for teaching , (1) In learning situations where students can be involved in currjculum decision making , they may learn as willingly and satisfactorily as under teacher decision making. (2) Contracting is an effective and practical technique for individualizing instruction and incorporating student decision making in the spelling curriculum. Implications for research as suggested by this investigation include the following, (1) There is a need to investigate the effects of student decision making upon achievement and attitude by (a) using more broadly representative samples of students, (b) looking at effects over a longer period of time, (c) using different testing instruments, or (d) implementing student decision making in other areas of the curriculum. (2) Student decision making effects might be interwoven with the quality of the negotiation between the teacher and the student, especially with respect to the provisions for commitment , success, and feedback concerning growth in decision making. An in depth analysis of the negotiation interaction might provide useful information concerning the effectiveness of specific aspects of the negotiation procedure. (3) An in depth analysis which would compare the achievement and attitude of individual students under different degrees of student decision making may reveal information concerning the most effective decision making situation for the individual student.
- ItemA Three-Dimensional Theory of Group Process in Adolescent Dyads(1974) Armstrong, Stephen H.; Hatfield, Agnes; Institute for Child Study; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)This dissertation tests a three-dimensional theory of group process originally proposed by William Schutz (1958) . His theory is that three process variables can account for group interaction: Inclusion, the degree to which persons in a group feel "in," "a part of" the group; Control, the degree to which persons can command and direct the group's resources, means, and goals; and Affection, the degree of relatedness that persons in the group feel for one another. Eighty-nine tenth grade suburban high school students completed a sociometric rating of their intact homeroom classes, and twenty-four pairs of students were randomly selected to participate in the experimental portion of the study. The dyads were selected along the Inclusion and Affection dimensions, each at two levels. Each pair played eight ten-choice games of "Prisoner's Dilemma, " a two-person, two-choice nonzero sum game, under an experimental instruction set of "trust and cooperation." The eight payoff matrices were systematically varied to provide two levels of Asymmetry and two levels of Fate Control, which are taken as the operational equivalent of the Control dimension. The matrices were randomly ordered for each pair. The design is a 2^4 factorial with repeated measures over two dimensions, analyzed as analysis of variance. The data is analyzed only for those matrices which give less payoff ("go against") the first player in the dyad to make a choice, since these matrices alone offer an incentive to trust the partner. There are six dependent variables in this study: (1) one's own number of trusting choices in each ten-choice game; (2) the partner's number of trusting choices; (3) one's total estimate of the partner's trustworthiness; (4) one's total number of years in jail; (5) the partner's total number of years in jail; and (6) the combined number of years in jail for both players. The results show a significant effect only for Fate Control, and only on three dependent variables: (1) total estimate of the partner's trustworthiness; (2) one's total number of years in jail, and (3) the partner's total number of years in jail. In general, the level of trusting behavior was high across all experimental conditions. The results are only partial support for the theory of group interaction. Fate Control is the one operational dimension most clearly linked with the experimental task demands, and therefore cannot be seen as strong support of Schutz's theory, especially in view of the lack of significant results on any other dimension. Affection, Inclusion, and Asymmetry of the payoff matrix were not significantly associated with any dependent variable. Second, factors beyond the experimenter's control may have contributed to the null results. For instance, students may have been "loyally" trusting to other students at a very high level perhaps because of their role vis a vis adult authority as manifested by the experimenter. Moreover, an overall lack of interpersonal interaction in the homeroom setting may have attenuated the results. Third, there is wide variance for each of the dependent variables, small effect size, and, consequently, the heightened chance of a Type II error. Moreover, the dependent variables are highly correlated, further limiting the potency of this experimental test. Finally, Schultz's theory is one of process, and the variables used in this study can capture this process only insofar as the dyad's structure reflects the process. To the extent that the structural measurements used in this study may not fully reflect palpable interpersonal process, the experiment, not the theory, may be held deficient. In summary, this attempt to empirically assess this three-dimensional theory of group process is not wholely successful. The experimental analogue situation (the Prisoner's Dilemma) gives only partial support to the theory.
- ItemThe Effects of Self-Monitoring on the Frequency of Aspects of Study Behavior(1975) Kazlo, Martha Peyton; Marx, George L.; Counseling and Personnel Services; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)Previous research has indicated that self-monitoring, observing and recording one's behavior, has proved effective in helping individuals modify some behaviors; however, other studies have shown no behavior change as a result of self-monitoring. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of self-monitoring on writing answers to questions, one of the steps of the SQ4R method of study. The effects of self-monitoring were measured by observing study behavior. Less direct measures of study behavior, self-recorded behavior, self-report inventory scores, and examination scores, were examined to determine the relationship between observed study behavior and these measures which have been used in previous studies. Forty-six undergraduate student volunteers were randomly assigned to either the treatment or to the control group. All students completed the items which comprise the SH score of the Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes, received information on the SQ4R method of study, watched a demonstration of the application of SQ4R, then demonstrated that they could apply the study method to a selection of reading materials. All students received copies of questions formulated by the experimenter on the content of a textbook that was required reading for an English course. Students were instructed to read the chapter to answer the questions that were provided, recite the answers in their own words, then write the answers, using only key words. Students were instructed to answer a certain number of questions each week, and were told there would be an examination in four weeks. Information was not provided to the students that the answer sheets would be collected after four weeks, and that judges would rate the quality and quantity of their answers. Students who were assigned to the self-monitoring group received report forms on which they were instructed to record daily the number of questions to which they had written answers; the forms were collected each week. The control group received the same goals, questions, and instructions as the self-monitoring group, except they were not instructed to record the number of questions to which they had written answers. The results indicated that the self-monitoring group wrote a significantly greater number of answers to questions than did the control group (p < .05). This corroborates previous reports which have shown that self-monitoring is an effective technique for producing behavior change. The findings were interpreted as suggesting that post-behavior self-monitoring is an effective technique for increasing the frequency of students' application of certain principles of effective study. There was no significant difference between self-recorded behavior reports and judges' reports of study behavior. This was interpreted as suggesting that self-recorded study behavior is an adequate criterion measure of actual study behavior. There was no significant difference between the examination scores of the two groups. This was interpreted as suggesting that changes in one aspect of study behavior, writing answers to questions on the material, has little or no relevance to academic achievement. There was no significant difference between the SH post-test scores of the two groups. This measure indicated no changes in study behavior; this is in contrast to the judges' reports and the self-recorded behavior record forms which did indicate change. This was interpreted as suggesting the l east inferential approaches to collection of data on study behavior, judges' reports of behavior and self-recorded behavior, are preferable to the more inferential approach of using self-report inventory scores.