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- ItemClient Perceptions of Psychotherapists: An Analogue Study(1970) Campbell, Terence W.; Goering, Jacob D.; Education; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)In the last decade, an impressive body of empirical evidence has accumulated which strongly suggests that psychotherapy outcome is a function of the levels of therapeutic conditions expressed by the therapist during the course of therapy. The empirically established role of these "levels of therapeutic conditions" (LTC) in determining process movement and therapy outcome suggested that they deserved and demanded systematic investigation in their own right as dependent variables. The primary concern of this investigation, then, was to determine whether LTC varied in its expression across therapists, and its perception across clients. It was hypothesized that psychotherapeutic orientation and client interpersonal style interact in determining client perceptions of psychotherapists. The experimental design developed for this study was a modification of Strupp's (1962) analogue procedure. Measures of interpersonal style-using Schutz's FIRO-B (1966)--were gathered from 378 college students at the University of Maryland. Approximately a week later, the Ss were randomly assigned to view one of the films in the film series Three Approaches to Psychotherapy. Immediately after viewing the film, the Ss were instructed to complete Barrett-Lennard's Relationship-Inventory in regards to how they would perceive the therapists if they were working with him as a client. The data were analyzed by means of analysis of variance procedures. The design was a 3 x 3 x 2 factorial analysis of variance (three therapeutic orientations x three client interpersonal styles x client sex). The first order interaction between therapists and clients was not significant (p <.240). However, the second order interaction (therapeutic orientation x client interpersonal style x client sex) did approach significance (p < .065), indicating that the first order therapist x client interaction was differential by sex. Subsequent analyses of variance were performed separately for males and females. For females, the therapist x client interaction was significant (p < .05), but this interaction was not significant for the male data. In discussing these results, two points were emphasized: (1) Those therapist behaviors which were perceived as facilitative and favorable by some clients, were not necessarily perceived as such by other clients; (2) The sources of variance in client perceptions were not as attributable to either therapist or client effects by themselves, as they were attributable to the interactive, system effects of the therapist-client dyads. Furthermore, the differential interaction effects between therapist and client variables and client sex were discussed in the context of sex-roles as conventionally defined at a societal level. Finally, the psychotherapeutic and research implications of the study, and its limitations, were considered.
- ItemThe Effects of Operant Conditioning of Study Behavior Among Academically Deficient College Sophomores(1970) Reed, M. Douglas; Magoon, Thomas M.; Counseling, Higher Education & Special Education; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)Operant conditioning procedures were utilized to assure the successful surveying study behavior of four black academically deficient college sophomores. They were asked to watch and listen to a video-taped lecture on surveying: the reading aloud, in order, of all bold-faced headings and the first sentence under each heading throughout the assigned work increments. Typical college textbook material was used for greater relevance. The students were diagnosed by pre-experimental records and observation, as academically deficient and void of survey study behavior. The experiment was conducted in a room specially designed for video taping and recording the subjects' behavior. Trained student experimenters supervised the experiment from an adjacent room where the subjects' performance was observed by TV monitor and heard by earphones. The subjects sat at a desk which had on it a study light which they could see and a large clock, the face of which they could not see. On the clock face was a small light which was not visible to the subjects. Together with the subjects, the study light, synchronized with the clock and its light were videotaped from the room in which the experimenters were stationed through an opening in the wall. Two of the subjects (one male and one female) were randomly assigned to be reinforced and the other two were not reinforced. Reinforcement consisted of the study light coming on (under the control of the experimenters) when appropriate topic sentences were vocalized properly. The light remained on until inappropriate topic sentences were read (additions) or appropriate ones were skipped (omissions). When either occurred the study light was turned off until appropriate text material was read. Most of the time the light remained on, since appropriate behavior most often was emitted. The clock light was synchronized with the study light. Non-reinforced subjects did not know when their behavior was appropriate, since reinforcement (the study light) was withheld. Whenever they emitted appropriate behavior, however, the clock light was turned on for purposes of analysis. The experimenters tallied the numbers of surveying or acquisition omissions and additions by means of noting the time on the clock face when the light was on or off. Surveying time was tallied also. After surveying each of the 25 chapters comprised of 636 appropriate topic sentences, the subjects were given mimeographed tests. These contained true statements incorporating all the topic sentences in that increment as well as others incorporating distracters, or inappropriate topic sentences. The tests measured the subjects' ability to discern and mark the appropriate material. Performances showed that as designed, the reinforced subjects Were under stimulus control of the study light. Reinforcement of surveying behavior following a lecture on the subject was more effective than a lecture without reinforcement. That is to say that the reinforced subjects, as hypothesized, made significantly fewer surveying omissions and performed better on the tests. There was little difference in surveying additions since few were made under either condition. Contrary to the hypotheses the time required for surveying was usually longer for the reinforced subjects since they were under stimulus control of the light. Student experimenters were demonstrated as capable supervisors of the experiment. Video-taping proved to be a highly reliable objective means of maintaining continuous records.
- ItemINTERACTION BETWEEN TIME AND VERBAL FLUENCY: A BEHAVIORAL MODEL FOR REDUCING AGGRESSIVE(1971) Brinson, Leslie Clay; Lawrence, Richard; Counseling, Higher Education & Special Education; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)This investigation was undertaken for the purpose of critically evaluating the contributions of two variables, time in therapy and verbal fluency, believed important to counseling outcomes. In addition, the study attempted to test the efficiency with which a behavioral model designed specifically for reducing aggressive behaviors, reduces overt and covert aggression of delinquent boys. The consideration that directly prompted the development of the investigation was the researcher's observations that few research studies have been organized that systematically and rigorously measure the therapeutic efficacy of counseling techniques and methods wit minority groups, particularly young, black delinquents; for no study could be found that related these variables of time and verbal fluency to counseling outcomes with this carefully drawn sample. The criteria for selecting subjects to be included in the study were that each subject be an adjudicated delinquent and must have committed a crime of a magnitude sufficient to result in being incarcerated for more than ninety days. This period of incarceration must have been in progress during the time counseling was offered. To satisfy this criterion, students from a residential center for young delinquent boys were selected. By treating these subjects it could be assumed that any change in aggressive behaviors might well have resulted from treatment effects in that the residents were subjected to similar stimuli and were randomly assigned to treatment groups. The analysis of the data was accomplished through the use of a two-way analysis of variance which was representative of a 2x4 factorial design with four levels of time forming the vertical dimension and the two levels of client verbal fluency forming the horizontal dimension. The level of significance was set at .05, a level at which all four hypotheses were tested. Since specific questions were raised prior to the initiation of the experiment, the method of paired comparison was the dictated strategy for analyzing the data statistically. The actual statistical tools used were the t and F tests. It was observed that the raw data (gain scores derived via ______ the differences between ____ of pre and post testing) were skewed in a form that threatened the power of the design; thus, as a corrective measure, the data were transformed through the use of a square root transgeneration. It was found that a statistical significant difference existed between clients' mean gain scores for 0 hour of counseling and the average of 3, 6, and 9 hours of counseling. This finding held only when the criterion was the overt aggression which compared the effects of the behavior model to the effects of no counseling at all. A second finding was that a significant linear trend was found across the means of the treatment dimension representing time. Again, this finding held only when the criterion was the overt aggression measure. Statistical analysis of the data fail to support any hypotheses regarding significant effects of interaction and verbal fluency for either the overt or covert measures. With respect to the variable of time, the paradoxical findings were that subjects counseled via the behavioral model for 3, 6, and 9 hours actually showed increments of aggression or the overt measurement scale when compared to the control group which received no counseling. Further, the findings regarding trends in the data were that there were significant linear trends that characterized the data; however, these trends were in a negative direction which lends to the conclusion that the mean gains of aggression were larger as clients' time in counseling increased. It is therefore concluded that the behavioral model was an ineffective method of successfully working with the selected sample of young, black delinquents in terms of reducing their manifest aggression. More pointedly, according to the evidence at hand, this model has a deleterious effect on clients in that their aggression increases with the use of it. The second variable under study, verbal fluency, did not affect clients' outcomes in therapy on either criterion. Accordingly, clients identified as having high verbal fluency make no more gains in therapy than those identified as having low verbal fluency. There were no statistical significant interaction effects.
- ItemFrustration Tolerance, Aggression and Intervention Methods for a Population of Non-Institutionalized Offenders(1972) Hecker, Benson; Lawrence, Richard E.; Counseling, Higher Education & Special Education; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)Although group counseling procedures have been researched extensively for institutionalized offender populations, literature concerning group counseling with non-institutionalized offenders has been less evident. In addition, much confusion exists in the literature with regard to frustration tolerance, and the acquisition and modification of aggressive behavior. For the purposes of this research, frustration tolerance as outlined by Saul Rosenzweig and the theoretical base of social learning in the acquisition of aggressive behavior, were utilized . In sum, this study was designed to investigate three treatment methods and their effects on frustration tolerance and aggression for a population of non-institutionalized offenders. Thirty-nine clients under the supervision of the United States District Court for the District of Columbia were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups. The treatment exposures consisted of: a) psychodrama and group counseling; b) films , audio-visual and group discussion; and c) normal probation and/or parole supervision as outlined by the Courts. The Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration Study and the Berea College Form Board were used as pre-test and as post-test measures for subjects in all three treatment groups. A Behavioral Rating Scale was developed to be used with the Berea College Form Board which consisted of 21 identifiable and/or definable physical and verbal behaviors. Computation of two Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients resulted in .71 for the pre-test and .83 for the post-test when comparisons were made between judges ratings on the Behavioral Ra ting Scale of subject's aggressive behaviors. Analysis of covariance with pre-test scores used as covariates was used in the analysis of the data. Results of the analysis were as follows: (1) There were no significant differences in mean scores between the three treatment groups in the acquisition of appropriate behaviors as measured on the (E), (I), (M) and (GCR) dimensions of the Rosenzweig Picture- Frustration Study. (2) There were no significant differences in mean scores between the three treatment groups in the acquisition of appropriate behaviors as measured on the Behavioral Rating Scale. While an analysis of the quantitative data does not support the use of psychodrama and group counseling, and the use of films and/ or audio-visual aids and group discussion as treatment methods to be used in the acquisition of appropriate behaviors, examination of the qualitative progress reports lend support to its continued use as treatment methods with offender populations. Meaningful relationships with probation officers and other group members were established, and in addition, "group members were able to look at themselves and discuss some of their problems." Further research, however, is recommended using similar techniques so that the effectiveness of this approach can be better evaluated.
- ItemIncreasing Vocational Information Seeking Behaviors of High School Students(1972) Redmond, Ronald E.; Byrne, Richard Hill; Counseling and Personnel Services; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)This study was an outgrowth of previous research which investigated reinforcement techniques used to increase the frequency of vocational information seeking behaviors (VISB). Based on the Larramore (1971) finding that subjects (Ss) intended but did not always carry out the suggested vocational information seeking behaviors (VISB), it became apparent that additional research was required to increase the actual performance of certain career seeking behaviors. This research was designed to evaluate the reinforcing effects of the Self-Directed Search (SDS, Holland, 1970) and contingency contracts on the frequency of VISB performed by high school Ss. It was assumed that the administration of the Self-Directed Search (SDS) followed by a contingency contract would increase the performance of a greater number of VISB than the administration of the SDS alone.
- ItemMinimal Brain Dysfunction with Hyperactivity: a Comparison of the Behavioral and Cognitive Effects of Pharmacological and Behavioral Treatments(1973) Bradbard, Gail Susan; Pumroy, Donald K.; Department of Counseling, Higher Education, and Special Education; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)It was the aim of the study: to compare the behavioral and cognitive effects of pharmacological and behavioral therapies in the short-term, clinical treatment of minimal brain dysfunction; and, to compare the behavioral and cognitive effects of stimulant (methylphenidate) and antidepressant (imipramine) drugs in the short-term, clinical treatment of minimal brain dysfunction. Twenty-nine boys, ranging in age from 6 through 12 years, with the diagnosis of minimal brain dysfunction with hyperactivity, were randomly assigned to three treatment groups: imipramine, methylphenidate, or behavior modification. The total time of treatment for each child was 6 weeks. For subjects within the imipramine and methylphenidate groups, medication dosage was individually titrated by a child psychiatrist. (Range: 75- 150 mg/daily of imipramine, 10- JO mg/daily of methylphenidate.) Parents of subjects within the behavior modification group individually met with an experimenter l hour per week. Behavioral principles were discussed, problem behaviors targeted, and behavioral programs devised for implementation during the treatment period. Subjects assigned to behavior modification were also individually seen once weekly. The first part of a session focused on behavioral control, following the method of behavior rehearsal. Working from problem areas targeted by parents, the subjects and experimenter discussed specific encounters, and then reenacted these incidents, rehearsing alternative, adaptive behaviors. The second part of a session was devoted to cognitive control, with training in self-directed verbal commands instituted. On tasks of trail making, matching pictures, and embedded figures, subjects verbally cued themselves to delay and to consider requirements before attempting a solution, with reinforcement contingent upon responses correct on initial trial. For all groups, prior to and following treatment, behavioral and cognitive measures were obtained: parents completed a behavior rating scale, the Parent's Questionnaire; teachers completed the School Report, assessing behavior and academic achievement; and subjects were administered a battery of psychological tests which included the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Wide Range Achievement Test, Porteus Maze Test, Bender Gestalt Test, Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration, and Draw-APerson. Analysis of the data from teachers' global ratings of behavior indicated the superiority of pharmacological treatment in comparison with behavioral treatment. Within the cognitive area, based on teachers' global ratings of academic achievement and the Porteus Maze Test, pharmacological treatment was again shown superior. Isolating specific group effects, contributing to the major portion of the variance between pharmacological and behavioral treatments was the superiority of methylphenidate to behavior modification. Further research was felt necessary concerning the therapeutic comparability or lack of comparability of imipramine and behavior modification treatments. Between imipramine and methylphenidate treatments, based on teachers' ratings of hyperactivity and global ratings of both behavior and academic achievement, differential effects, in favor of methylphenidate, were suggested. Thus, the comparability of imipramine and methylphenidate treatments in terms of both behavioral and cognitive effects was felt to be in question. Results were discussed in terms of the bounds of the design, procedure, and measurements. Qualifications were noted concerning statistical power, Type I error, the relative rather than absolute efficacy of the treatments, and the validity of the measurements. Application and research implications were presented. The need for continued research into the application of behavioral programs with MBD children, both independent of and in conjunction with pharmacological treatment, was stressed, with suggestions provided as to the clinic-based and, to a limited extent, school-based implementation of such programs.
- ItemThe Effects of Self-Monitoring on the Frequency of Aspects of Study Behavior(1975) Kazlo, Martha Peyton; Marx, George L.; Counseling and Personnel Services; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)Previous research has indicated that self-monitoring, observing and recording one's behavior, has proved effective in helping individuals modify some behaviors; however, other studies have shown no behavior change as a result of self-monitoring. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of self-monitoring on writing answers to questions, one of the steps of the SQ4R method of study. The effects of self-monitoring were measured by observing study behavior. Less direct measures of study behavior, self-recorded behavior, self-report inventory scores, and examination scores, were examined to determine the relationship between observed study behavior and these measures which have been used in previous studies. Forty-six undergraduate student volunteers were randomly assigned to either the treatment or to the control group. All students completed the items which comprise the SH score of the Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes, received information on the SQ4R method of study, watched a demonstration of the application of SQ4R, then demonstrated that they could apply the study method to a selection of reading materials. All students received copies of questions formulated by the experimenter on the content of a textbook that was required reading for an English course. Students were instructed to read the chapter to answer the questions that were provided, recite the answers in their own words, then write the answers, using only key words. Students were instructed to answer a certain number of questions each week, and were told there would be an examination in four weeks. Information was not provided to the students that the answer sheets would be collected after four weeks, and that judges would rate the quality and quantity of their answers. Students who were assigned to the self-monitoring group received report forms on which they were instructed to record daily the number of questions to which they had written answers; the forms were collected each week. The control group received the same goals, questions, and instructions as the self-monitoring group, except they were not instructed to record the number of questions to which they had written answers. The results indicated that the self-monitoring group wrote a significantly greater number of answers to questions than did the control group (p < .05). This corroborates previous reports which have shown that self-monitoring is an effective technique for producing behavior change. The findings were interpreted as suggesting that post-behavior self-monitoring is an effective technique for increasing the frequency of students' application of certain principles of effective study. There was no significant difference between self-recorded behavior reports and judges' reports of study behavior. This was interpreted as suggesting that self-recorded study behavior is an adequate criterion measure of actual study behavior. There was no significant difference between the examination scores of the two groups. This was interpreted as suggesting that changes in one aspect of study behavior, writing answers to questions on the material, has little or no relevance to academic achievement. There was no significant difference between the SH post-test scores of the two groups. This measure indicated no changes in study behavior; this is in contrast to the judges' reports and the self-recorded behavior record forms which did indicate change. This was interpreted as suggesting the l east inferential approaches to collection of data on study behavior, judges' reports of behavior and self-recorded behavior, are preferable to the more inferential approach of using self-report inventory scores.
- ItemA Relationship Between Cheating and Accountability in Community College Mathematics Classes(1975) Strong, David H.; Davidson, Neil A.; Counseling, Higher Education & Special Education; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between cheating behavior and the situation of varying degrees of accountability in community college mathematics classes. Three community college mathematics classes were selected for the experiment with one arbitrarily designated as the High accountability group, another arbitrarily designated as the Moderate accountability group, and a third as the Low accountability group. Five examinations were given to each class at s paced intervals during the experimental period with directions that there were penalties to one's score for guessing and that all work had to be shown on separate paper. Each class was told that every student would correct his own examination. After each examination, the instructor surreptitiously made a record of answers given by each student. When the examinations were returned for correction in class, the following took place. An answer key was passed out, and the instructor left the room to administer the examination to those absent from the previous class . He remained absent long enough for cheating behavior to take place. Upon the instructor's return, answer sheets only were collected and placed on a table so the instructor could see which students answered which questions correctly. For each question, a student in the High Accountability group was selected by the instructor to explain and otherwise defend his correct answer to the class' satisfaction. The selection of the student was random and based only on whether or not he had correctly answered the question. If he failed to satisfactorily defend his answer, he was either reprimanded or reminded of the directions printed on the examination. This procedure was continued for the remainder of the class until all questions were satisfactorily answered. It was usually the case that all students were called on at least once during the period. In this way, students were made to feel accountable for their answers. In the Moderate Accountability group, students were selected to answer every other question, and in the Low Accountability group, the instructor answered all questions unless a class member volunteered. When the class was finished, answer sheets were compared in the office to the earlier copies of the original answer sheets. A record was made of how many people had cheated in each class and the total number of answers that had been altered in any way. Scores used for achievement measurement were taken from the original answer sheets. Cheating was defined to be the deliberate changing or addition of an answer when marking one's own paper. Incidences of cheating meant the total number of answers changed, and rate of cheating meant the total number of changed answers divided by the total number of cheaters in each class. Four hypotheses were tested: the Analysis of Variance technique was used for hypothesis A, and the chi-square statistic for hypotheses B, C, and D. These hypotheses are as follows: (A) There are no significant differences among the achievement of the subjects in the classes with varying degrees of accountability. (B) There are no significant differences among the number of subjects exhibiting cheating behavior in classes with varying degrees of accountability. (C) There are no significant differences among the number of cheating incidences in classes with varying degrees of accountability. (D) There are no significant differences among the rate of cheating in classes with varying degrees of accountability. Using the .05 level of significance, the results are as follows: (1) No significant differences appeared when the achievement of the classes was compared. (2) No significant differences appeared between the number of cheaters in the classes for the first exam, but there were significantly fewer cheaters in the High Accountability group than in both the Moderate Accountability group and the Low Accountability group on the other four examinations. (3) No significant differences appeared between the incidence of cheating in the classes for the first examination but there were significantly fewer incidences of cheating in the High Accountability group than in both the Moderate Accountability group and the Low Accountability group on the other four examinations (4) No significant differences appeared for any exam when the rate of cheating was compared.
- ItemThe Construction of an Instrument to Assess Heath Typologies in a Resident Advisor Population(1978) Agar, Jane Leslie; Knefelkamp, L. Lee; Counseling and Personnel Services; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)This study focuses on the application of Roy Heath's theory of personality style to a specific population of under graduate student assistants within the resident hall environment. A primary objective was to develop an instrument which could be used as an alternative to the Heath Modes of Existence test for assessing the style of particular individuals. To this end, the Resident Advisor Heath Typology Instrument was created. This instrument contained 48 items and was constructed using a likert type scale. It was administered to 45 Resident Assistants enrolled in a leadership training course at the University of Maryland. These students also completed Heath's Modes of Existence test. In addition, a group of expert raters were asked to assess the Heath style of these 45 resident assistants. Analysis of these three sets of data indicated that Heath and likert typings agreed in 66.67% of the cases; Heath typings and expert ratings agreed in 77.53% of the cases; and likert typings and expert ratings agreed 84.10% of the time. These results show both the Modes of Existence test and the Resident Advisor Heath Typology Instrument to be valid measures of personality style. These results also support the hypothesis of the author that accurate typology assessments could be obtained from a specific population within a particular environment.
- ItemWomen Vietnam Veterans and Their Mental Health Adjustment: A Study of Their Experiences and Post-Traumatic Stress(1982) Schnaier, Jenny Ann; Spokane, Arnold R.; Counseling, Higher Education & Special Education; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)Approximately 8,000-10,000 women served directly in the Vietnam war. Popular literature and women's self-reports suggest that by virtue of their exposure to extreme stressors resulting from war-time medical experiences women veterans are now describing their stress symptoms, and may be suffering from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The intention of this preliminary, descriptive research was to assess the nature and extent of mental health problems affecting female Vietnam veterans. Subjects were contacted through a mailing list of a veterans organization and 89 women who had served in Vietnam as medical personnel completed a written questionnaire about their experiences and reactions to them yielding a 97% return rate. The results indicated that approximately one-third of the stress symptom items were endorsed by 25% of the subjects, and of symptoms first reported as having occurred between homecoming and one year after Vietnam, approximately 70% were reported as still present. These identified symptoms represented a fairly complete picture of those specific symptoms and experiences of PTSD as defined by DSM III of the A.P.A. This investigator concluded that, (a) the current research effort has provided preliminary evidence that PTSD may be applicable to the experiences of women Vietnam veterans, (b) there is evidence of mental health distress among the women sampled, (c) there are positive, growthful experiences for many of the women in this sample, and (d) at l east as far as biographical-demographical factors are concerned, this sample of women Vietnam veterans are different from previously studied male veterans.
- ItemThe Influence of the Presence of Intellectually Handicapped Siblings on the Development of Empathy in Children(1982) Feinberg, Edward Alan; Pumroy, Donald K.; Education; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)The major purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between the development of empathy and the presence of a handicapped sibling among children. The siblings of the handicapped children were between four and one half and eight and one half years of age. The Feshbach-Roe Affective Situations Test was individually administered to 60 siblings of handicapped and nonhandicapped children. The handicapped children were younger siblings of those tested. These handicapped children ranged in age from 12 months to three and one half years. The results indicated that there is no statistically significant difference in overall empathy between children with younger handicapped and younger nonhandicapped siblings. Stepwise discriminant analysis did, however, reveal that there is a differential pattern among individual empathy variables for the two groups. For the total group (p < .028) it was revealed that siblings of the handicapped expressed less empathy toward happy scenarios and more empathy toward fearful scenarios. For children > 7 years (p < .001) siblings of the handicapped expressed more empathy in situations depicting fear and anger and less empathy toward sad situations. The use of the Feshbach-Roe Affective Situations Test was supplemented by interviews with six of the siblings. The interviews added clinical insights that were usually in accord with the implications of the statistical findings. Explanations for the profile of the statistical and clinical results are offered. The possible ramifications of the results are discussed and future research directions are recommended.
- ItemThe Effect of Social Problem Solving Ability on the Adjustment of Third-Grade Children(1983) Keys, Susan Gies; Celotta, Beverley; Counseling, Higher Education, and Special Education; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)Many children experience interpersonal problems and frequently these children lack the necessary skills to successfully resolve such issues. Social problem-solving training programs have recently evolved as a means for developing specific cognitive problem-solving skills. The primary question investigated in this study was whether or not problem-solving ability affects adjustment as measured by teacher ratings. The effect of problem-solving training on specific problem-solving skills was also assessed. Children were randomly selected and assigned to either a problem-solving program or a career awareness control group. The treatment and control conditions were administered by 10 elementary school counselors in 10 different elementary schools. A small group format was used with eight students per group. One hundred and fifty-seven subjects, 78 experimental and 79 control, participated in the study. All students were posttested on a set of 17 dependent variables. Twelve of these were problem-solving variables (conflict identification; feeling identification; goal identification; quantity of alternatives; alternative decision; quality of chosen alternative; quantity of consequences; quantity of means-end steps; quality of means-end steps; persistency; quantity of problem-solving steps; and sequencing of problem solving steps) and five were adjustment variables. The adjustment variables correspond to the five factors of the Health Resources Inventory: gutsy; good student; rules; peer sociability; and frustration tolerance. A significant multivariate F (p < .001) for treatment suggests that problem-solving training had a significant impact on the set of dependent variables. Additional univariate analysis of variance results for each dependent variable reflected a significant difference between experimentals and controls on seven of the problem-solving variables and two of the adjustment variables. The multivariate F tests for sex and interaction were not significant. These results suggest that social problem-solving ability can significantly affect the adjustment of third-grade children. The effect of problem-solving training on problem-solving skills supports this result. This study also discusses these two sets of results in relationship to the findings of prior research and addresses implications for future research and practice.
- ItemWORK STATUS AND THE QUALITY OF LIFE FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH CHRONIC MENTAL ILLNESS(1988) Fabian, Ellen Sue; Power, Paul W.; Counseling and Personnel Services; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, MD)Work has always been the goal of the vocational rehabilitation process, and has assumed major importance in the field of psychiatric rehabilitation. The significance accorded work is apparent in the appropriation of millions of federal dollars for improved vocational training technologies (Rehabilitation Acts Amendments, 1986: P.L. 99-506), as well as in the volume of vocationally-oriented literature in the field of psychiatric rehabilitation. Despite policy and program attention, competitive employment success for individuals who are mentally ill remains marginal, with most national and local reports citing employment rates as low as 5 percent and only as high as 25 percent. These poor outcomes are generally attributed to individual disabilities or environmental obstacles, but few studies have attempted to determine the meaning of work to this population by examining the impact that employment status has on overall quality of life. The present study explores the impact of work status for a sample of 81 individuals with chronic mental illness participating in community rehabilitation programs in Maryland. Individuals who met the study criteria were randomly selected form programs, and were assessed using the Quality of Life Interview (Lehman, 1988) and the Vocational Development Scale (Hershenson & Lavery, 1978). Quality of life theory and research suggests that specific domains of an individual's life have an impact on overall reports of well-being. Therefore, this study assesses the relationship between work status and life satisfaction as an analysis of main effects, and then analyzes selected variables that might mediate this relationship. Job satisfaction and vocational development are also analyzed. Results indicate that competitive employment per se does not have a direct effect on life satisfaction, but that gender and satisfaction with employment status mediate this relationship. Although quality of life research suggests that motivation might mediate the relationship between status and satisfaction, this did not appear to be the case for this sample, nor did there appear to be a relationship between work competence and job or life satisfaction. The study explores the implications of the results both for public policy and for program planning. Recommendations for further research are discussed.
- ItemComputer-Based Test Interpretation Software: Its Effect on School Psychologist Decision Making(1989) Wisor, John Wesley; Strein, William; Counseling, Higher Education & Special Education; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)The purpose of this study was to assess the utility of interpretative software for school psychological decision making in its role as a decision aid. One hundred two professional school psychologists were provided case data and asked to make a series of diagnostic and prognostic decisions based on the case material. One subject group received case material only and each of the other two groups received one of two variations of the narrative output generated by a computer-based test interpretation software package in addition to the case material. The subjects were also asked which data sources were most influential as they made their decisions. Diagnostic agreement among the psychologists within each group was analyzed by Kendall's coefficient of concordance or weighted Kappa. For each decision there were no significant differences in agreement between those psychologists who had access to the decision aids and those who did not. Chi-square and Freidman analysis of variance results for similarity of diagnosis across groups were mixed with some trends suggestive of greater similarities of decisions among the subjects utilizing different variations of the computer output than among decisions made by unaided psychologists. Further the school psychologists overwhelmingly indicated that test data and behavioral observations were the most influential data sources for their decisions and that computer-based data sources were the least influential . Also there appeared to be no significant relationship between school psychologist professional experience and the perceived influence of the case data sources as well as little relationship between degree of experience in using computers to the data sources considered to be useful in the decision making process. The results were discussed in terms of psychological decision theory. Trends in the data suggested the computer narrative was most effective in situations where it was necessary to discriminate among ambiguous decision choices rather than in more clear cut situations. It was concluded that computer-based decision aids have the potential to debias the decision process, but that definitive changes will not come until the technology is improved and school psychologists become more familiar with the use of computers.
- ItemA Comparison of Male and Female College Student Presidents on Self-Esteem, Sex-Role Identity, Achieving Styles and Career Aspirations by Gender Composition of Student Organization(1989) Varwig, Jana Ellen; McEwen, Marylu K.; Counseling, Higher Education & Special Education; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)The purpose of this study was to explore gender differences in the self- esteem, sex- role identity, achieving styles and career aspirations of 164 male and female college student leaders. Also explored were potential differences between student leaders of single-sex and mixed-sex groups across the same dimensions. All presidents of registered student organizations were asked to participate in the study. Seventy-one percent of the presidents responded and were included in the study. Respondents were administered the Rosenberg Self- esteem Scale, the Bern Sex- role Inventory, the L-BLA Achieving Styles Inventory and a questionnaire containing items on career aspirations. No significant differences were found between male and female student leaders on the self- esteem or sex- role identity variables. Significant gender differences were found on five of the nine achieving styles and on two of the indicators of career aspiration -- college major and preference for a full-time or interrupted career. No significant differences were found between student leaders of single-sex and mixed-sex groups.
- ItemIDENTIFICATION OF FACTORS WHICH CONTRIBUTE TO THE POST-SECONDARY EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT OF MALE MILITARY ENLISTEES: EVIDENCE FROM THE NATIONAL LONGITUDINAL STUDY(1989) Wright, Stephen E.; Miller, Merl E.; Counseling, Higher Education & Special Education; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)The purpose of this study was to identify factors which contribute t o the post-secondary educational attainment level o f male military enlistees. The research problems were : 1. When socioeconomic status/family background factors, educational aspiration factors, educational/ academic performance factors and military factors were considered separately, how did each factor relate to the post-secondary educational attainment of male military enlistees. 2. When socioeconomic status/ family background factors, educational aspiration factors, educational/ academic performance factors, and military factors were considered jointly, how did they relate to the postsecondary educational attainment of male military enlistees? The sample for this study was taken from the National Longitudinal Study (NLS). The selected 845 sample was tracked from the NLS 1972 base year survey through the 1979 fourth follow-up survey. Multiple regression analysis was the analytical tool selected for analyzing the data within this study. Besides the overall significant relationships between socioeconomic status/family background, educational aspiration, educational/academic performance, military factors, and educational attainment, the results of this investigation revealed that a number of individual independent variables were important predictors of educational attainment. It was found that mother's educational aspirations for children, mother's education, father's occupation, high school grade point average, student aptitude, student high school program, reason for entering the military -- to receive in-service college education, and educational plans after.military service -- college were individually all significant predictors of educational attainment of male military enlistees.
- ItemThe Relationships Among Temperament, Attachment and Initial Adjustment to College(1989) McAndrew-Miller, Carol; Teglasi, Hedwig; Counseling and Personnel Services; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)Attachment theory suggests that the nature of the infant's first relationship with its primary caretaker is the foundation of normal development and influences adjustment in various domains throughout the life-span. Temperament research also indicates a relationship between temperament attributes and adaptation to change. The research in attachment and temperament has primarily focused on young children and adolescents. This research project sought to investigate the relationship of the constructs of attachment and temperament with initial adjustment to· college. A total sample of 261 first semester college freshmen from two college/universities completed a series of questionnaires. The questionnaires included indices of students' perception of past attachment relationships (Parental Bonding Instrument; Parker, Tupling, & Brown, 1979), temperament profile (Revised Dimensions of Temperament Survey; (Windle & Lerner, 1986) and adjustment to college (Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire; Baker & Siryk, 198 6 ); Perceived Social Support Scale- Friends; Procidano & Heller, 1983). Through multiple regression analyses, results indicated that temperament (positive mood, low distractibility, and rhythmicity/ positive mood flexibility, rhythmicity-eating and persistence) correlated with attachment (care/low overprotection). Temperament was found to correlate with the five areas of adjustment (academic: distractibility, flexibility, activity level-general, rhythmicity-daily habits, persistence; social: approach, mood, flexibility, persistence; personal/emotional: flexibility; rhythmicity-eating, activity level-sleep, distractibility; goal attainment: mood flexibility, persistence, approach; perceived social support: mood, approach, rhythmicity-eating). Post hoc analyses indicated school and gender differences within specific domains of attachment and adjustment. High school grade point average was best predicted by the temperament dimensions of flexibility, mood, and persistence whereas first semester college grade point average was best predicted by the low distractibility, rhythmicity-sleep and activity level-sleep. For the relationship of attachment to college adjustment, care was the most significant predictor for the five aspects of adjustment. The results of this research are supportive of the earlier work with children and adolescents and validates that attachment and temperament are influential variables in adjustment during the life-span.
- ItemMerit Pay Incentive Plans and Faculty Motivation at Liberal Arts Colleges(1993) Nelson, Karen K.; Chait, Richard; Counseling, Higher Education & Special Education; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)This study examined faculty behavior under merit pay Plans at four liberal arts colleges to determine whether there was a relationship between faculty motivation (effort) and the degree to which institutional pay plans and individual expectancies conformed to Lawler's theory of the conditions necessary for an effective monetary incentive structure (Lawler 1971, 1981, 1990). These conditions are: 1) A perception that performance and merit awards are linked; 2) Monetary rewards are highly valued; 3) Award size is large enough to make an impact; and 4) Information about rewards are publicly disclosed. The study proposed the question: Is there an association between motivation levels among faculty subject to merit pay plans and the presence of the theory conditions, or do other factors relate to faculty motivation? Using questionnaires to faculty, statistical correlation techniques tested for associations between reported faculty behavior and Lawler's four theory conditions. Lawler's theory did not apply to this group of faculty. The reward size condition showed the expected positive association, however, contrary to theory hypothesis, the perception of the pay-performance link was negatively related. Of the faculty characteristics examined, faculty with higher salaries and those with tenure reported less willingness to give additional effort to most activities. The faculty had highly inaccurate perceptions of the actual merit payments awarded to others at their institutions. The perception of the strength of the pay-performance link indicated that faculty believe the determination of reward recipients is unpredictable with respect to one's performance. These faculty members valued monetary rewards, yet responses to merit pay in the form of greater effort was weak. The stronger response to merit pay by the faculty at the non-merit pay institution suggests that familiarity with a merit pay system in practice breeds a more skeptical attitude because it has not proven as equitable or fruitful in operation as the faculty expect in the abstract. The findings suggest a need to look more closely at the role of intrinsic rewards, the perceived pay-performance relationship factor, and the process of determining rewards.
- ItemTRANSITION OF STUDENTS FROM A SPECIAL CENTER TO SELF-CONTAINED CLASSES IN GENERAL EDUCATION SCHOOLS: PARTICIPANTS' EXPERIENCES(1996) Bachman, Colleen McCleary; Strein, William; Counseling, Higher Education & Special Education; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)The process of transferring disabled students from a special center to self-contained classes in regular schools was investigated through case study research. The purpose of the study was to determine how different participants experienced the transitions and how their roles affected their experiences. The experiences and perceptions of participants, specifically parents, teachers, and administrators were explored through qualitative methodology. The transitions of six students served as the focus of the case studies. Data was collected through three techniques, semi-structured interviews, participant observations, and review of archival information. All participants reported that the opportunity to model appropriate social skills and behaviors were a benefit of the transition. Parental anxiety was reported to be a major barrier by school staff and parents. Parents perceived their role as the "decision maker" in the process. They were concerned about safety, ridicule by other students, and loss of a community of supportive parents. Having the child attend his or her home school was important to school personnel but not to parents. Teachers at the special center based their decision to transfer a child on a match between the child's skills and the regular school's preparation and willingness to work with the child. Teachers at the receiving schools were concerned about their lack of skills to teach severely disabled students and lack of resources. Administrators perceived their role as one of leadership and setting the tone. They are not directly involved in the transition process unless difficulties arise. The primary barrier in the transition process is the lack of a shared conceptualization regarding how best to deliver educational services. The factor expressed by all participants as most facilitative of the process was open, honest, and frequent communications amongst participants. The transitions were reported as successful by the participants based on their subjective impressions. Success of the transitions was not evaluated or measured through traditional objective criteria because such measures were not available.
- ItemAttachment Style, Parental Caregiving and Perceived Image of God(1999) Oler, Israel David; Birk, Janice M.; Counseling and Personnel Services; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)Is adult perceived image of god related to attachment style, and if so, is it parallel to or compensatory for early or adult attachment style, and does early image of god influence adult attachment? One hundred and thirty-one undergraduates completed measures of their present adult attachment styles (Relationship Questionnaire, Bartholomew and Horowitz, 1991; Relationship Scales Questionnaire, Griffin and Bartholomew, 1994), parental caregiving styles experienced in growing up (retrospective early attachment), (Parental Caregiving Style, Hazan and Shaver, 1986} as well as of their adult and early (retrospective) perceived image of god (Wrathfulness Scale, Gorsuch, 1968) for the purpose of exploring the relationships between these variables. Adult attachment style was not shown to be related to adult perceived image of god except in terms of a positive relationship between the secure style (as measured by the Relationship Questionnaire) and perceived image of god. The more warm the parental caregiving style experienced, the more positive both the early and adult image of god; the colder the parental caregiving style, the more negative both the early and adult perceived image of god. No evidence was found for a relationship between early image of god and adult attachment style. As number of counseling sessions increased so did the incidence of the fearful attachment dimension and of a more negative perceived image of god while incidence of the secure attachment dimension diminished. The experience of romantic relationships was unrelated to adult attachment dimensions and to adult perceived image of god. Caucasians demonstrated a more negative adult perceived image of god than did African Americans. Adult perceived image of god appears to parallel parental caregiving style experienced and to a more limited extent adult attachment style. Both parents' caregiving styles parallel perceived image of god consistent with attachment theory. Suggestions are made for developing an enhanced perceived image of god measure that will enable further study of the relationship between perceived image of god and parental caregiving. It is also proposed that using adult attachment measures that delete reference to romance may yield an enhanced relationship with perceived image of god.