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- ItemPERCEPTION OF PATIENT-PROVIDER COMMUNICATION AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH HEALTH SERVICES UTILIZATION(2012) Villani, Jennifer; Mortensen, Karoline; Health Services Administration; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 has generated an unprecedented emphasis on patient satisfaction and patient-centered care. This dissertation is composed of a series of papers on how patients perceive the quality of care delivered by their healthcare providers and its relationship to their usage of health services. The main hypothesis is that higher perceived quality of care is associated with more effective use of health services. The studies use nationally representative data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) with the research grounded in Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use. In the first study, I explore whether differences in satisfaction between English- and Spanish-speaking Hispanics can be explained by acculturation and concordance with their providers with regard to race, ethnicity, gender, and language. I use the econometric Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition method to quantify the contributions of each measured characteristic for explaining disparities in patient satisfaction. In the second study, I examine whether a lack of patient-centeredness and poor access to a regular provider are associated with greater nonemergent emergency department (ED) utilization. I employ a hurdle model to account for the two-part decision making process of whether to use the ED and how often to use the ED for nonemergent purposes. In the third study, I investigate the relationship between patient-centered care and receipt of six recommended clinical preventive services including screening for breast cancer, cervical cancer, colorectal cancer, high cholesterol, hypertension, and vaccination against influenza. I use multivariate logistic regression models to determine the probability of compliance with national prevention guidelines. The results reveal the importance of how patients perceive interpersonal communication with their healthcare providers. In the first study, acculturation is implicated as a major contributor to differences in patient satisfaction with communication. Furthermore, the results from the second study indicate language concordance between patients and providers is related to less nonemergent ED use. Findings from the third study suggest a pattern of greater compliance with clinical preventive service recommendations when patients perceive receiving patient-centered care from their providers. Implications for policy and practice are presented.
- ItemRACIAL AND ETHNIC DIFFERENCES IN ACCESSING TIMELY CANCER SCREENING AND TREATMENT SERVICES: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS(2013) King, Christopher Jerome; Thomas, Stephen B.; Chen, Jie; Health Services Administration; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)This research is organized into three integrated studies that explored differences in screening and treatment services across the cancer care continuum by race and ethnicity. The Andersen Behavioral Model of Health Services Use and the Five Dimensions of Access were used as conceptual frameworks. In the first study (Chapter 2), data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey were used to examine breast and cervical cancer screening rates before and during the Great Recession (2007-2009). The interaction terms of recession and race and ethnicity were controlled to examine whether minorities exhibited different utilization patterns under economic shock compared to Whites. In Chapter 3, data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) from 2006-2010 were used to identify adult cancer survivors and adults without a history of cancer. Multivariate logistic regressions were applied to examine the prevalence of cost, organizational and transportation barriers between survivors and the general population. The likelihood of experiencing barriers was explored by race and ethnicity. In Chapter 4, differences in the likelihood of experiencing access barriers among survivors by race and ethnicity was explored. Data were merged from the 2000-2011 (NHIS) to identify adult cancer survivors who reported cost, organizational and transportation barriers. Logistic regressions were applied to determine the likelihood of reporting each type of barrier, while controlling for demographic and socioeconomic variables. The Fairlie decomposition technique was applied to identify contributing factors that explained differences in accessing care based by race and ethnicity. Overall, results of the investigations demonstrate that: (1) breast and cervical screening rates declined most among White women during the recession period, while rates increased among Hispanic women during the same period; (2) minority cancer survivors were significantly more likely to experience access-to-care barriers than Whites; and (3) insurance, comorbidity, perceived health and nativity were leading factors that contributed to racial and ethnic differences in timely receipt of cancer screening and treatment services. As provisions of the Affordable Care Act take effect, findings provide insight into practices, policies, and future research that will help achieve Healthy People 2020 screening objectives and reduce racial and ethnic disparities in accessing timely cancer care.
- ItemEXPANDING THE CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF HEALTH LITERACY TO IMPROVE LONG-TERM SERVICES AND SUPPORTS(2013) Ruben, Kathleen Ann; Simon-Rusinowitz, Lori; Health Services Administration; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)Low health literacy is a significant and growing public health problem. It is estimated that 90 million individuals in the U.S. have low health literacy, which is associated with poor health outcomes. Individuals with low health literacy skills may not be able to obtain health information, communicate with health care providers, or make optimal health care decisions. People from all backgrounds can have low health literacy levels, however, the rates are higher in certain groups such as older adults, Medicaid beneficiaries, and minority populations. Due to our rapidly aging and increasingly diverse U.S. population, the problems associated with low health literacy may increase over the next few decades. Studies have examined the relationship between an individual's health literacy level and their own health outcomes. However, few have focused on how the health literacy level of others, such as caregivers and health care professionals, impacts the health outcomes of care recipients. It is important to understand this relationship in terms of elders who depend on others, such as caregivers and family members, for their care. This series of three studies addresses this critical gap in health literacy research. The first two studies examine the need for a health literacy component of a training program for care teams for individuals with dementia in participant-directed programs. The first is an ethnographic pilot study of caregivers in West Virginia's Personal Options Program, and the second is a mixed- methods study of "Decision-Making Partner" preparedness in Arkansas' IndependentChoices Program. The third study examines the effect of the emergency department referral process on repeated utilization of community health centers by low-income, uninsured adults and Medicaid Beneficiaries, as well as the role of Patient Navigators as mediators within the framework of health literacy. This research provides evidence that the health literacy level of others, including caregivers, decision-making partners, and health care providers significantly impacts the ability of older adults to access health services and supports, communicate with healthcare providers, navigate the healthcare system, and manage chronic diseases. Therefore, addressing health literacy is essential for increasing health-related knowledge, improving health outcomes, and decreasing health disparities in long-term care.
- ItemInpatient Mortality in Emergency Care: Is Competition Always Good?(2014) Kwok, Veronica; Chen, Jie; Health Services Administration; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)The objective of this study was to measure the association between regional competition and emergency care outcomes. Competition was measured using the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index for three hospital referral regions in Maryland. Preliminary regression analysis using a logistic binary model showed that higher competition was associated with lower odds of mortality. Further investigation suggested that competition could be endogenous. Further regression analysis using an instrumental variable of hospital system affiliation and two-stage least squares estimation showed that lower competition was associated with lower odds of mortality for sepsis and trauma (OR = 0.7, p-value <0.001, OR = 0.5, p-value <0.001, respectively). Future investigation perhaps on a national level could help identify a stronger, more uniform association between competition and emergency care outcomes including large scale events, and as such provide policy guidance for quality of emergency care.
- ItemPreventive Services Use - Disparities and Changes Following Health Care Reform(2015) Holden, Craig David; Dagher, Rada; Health Services Administration; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)The federal Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), signed into law on March 23, 2010, changes the landscape of U.S. health care through expanded insurance access, enhanced consumer protections, emphasis on wellness and disease prevention, and cost control. This dissertation is composed of three papers that investigate aspects of preventive services. The studies use nationally representative data from the National Survey of Family Growth and the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and employs Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use as a theoretical model. The first study explores the relationships between use of various preventive services and being uninsured. The study employs multivariate logistic regression analyses to estimate variation in receipt of eight preventive services by race/ethnicity among adults aged 18 years and older uninsured in the previous year. The second article focuses on expanded access to health insurance in young adults and how this relates to the use of contraception and unintended pregnancy. This study used a difference-in-differences approach in order to identify a causal relationship between the policy and outcome. The third article examines colorectal cancer screening practices in the Medicare population before and after Medicare rules changes stemming from the ACA regarding reimbursement of screening procedures. Multivariate and single difference multivariate logistic regression models were estimated to examine trends and racial/ethnic differences in colorectal cancer screening over the 2007 to 2012 period. The results show how important it is to understand the determinants of preventive service access among a variety of population subgroups. With the introduction of the Affordable Care Act, health systems require strategies to determine what policy, system, and administrative methods are most effective in improving the uptake of preventive services and reducing disparities. This dissertation addressed policy influences on screenings and provided information on the impact of policies on use of preventive services as well as on reducing the disparities among subpopulations. Improved access to health insurance and better coverage of preventive services are necessary mechanisms to increase service utilization in the United States, but these may not be sufficient to actually realize improved utilization.
- ItemFamily structure and multiple domains of child well-being in the United States: a cross-sectional study(Springer Nature, 2015-02-21) Krueger, Patrick M; Jutte, Douglas P; Franzini, Luisa; Elo, Irma; Hayward, Mark DWe examine the association between family structure and children’s health care utilization, barriers to health care access, health, and schooling and cognitive outcomes and assess whether socioeconomic status (SES) accounts for those family structure differences. We advance prior research by focusing on understudied but increasingly common family structures including single father families and five different family structures that include grandparents. Our data on United States children aged birth through 17 (unweighted N = 198,864) come from the 1997–2013 waves of the National Health Interview Survey, a nationally representative, publicly available, household-based sample. We examine 17 outcomes across nine family structures, including married couple, cohabiting couple, single mother, and single father families, with and without grandparents, and skipped-generation families that include children and grandparents but not parents. The SES measures include family income, home ownership, and parents’ or grandparents’ (depending on who is in the household) employment and education. Compared to children living with married couples, children in single mother, extended single mother, and cohabiting couple families average poorer outcomes, but children in single father families sometimes average better health outcomes. The presence of grandparents in single parent, cohabiting, or married couple families does not buffer children from adverse outcomes. SES only partially explains family structure disparities in children’s well-being. All non-married couple family structures are associated with some adverse outcomes among children, but the degree of disadvantage varies across family structures. Efforts to understand and improve child well-being might be most effective if they recognize the increasing diversity in children’s living arrangements.
- ItemGender Differences in Mental Health Outcomes before, during, and after the Great Recession(PLOS (Public Library of Science), 2015-05-13) Dagher, Rada K.; Chen, Jie; Thomas, Stephen B.We examined gender differences in mental health outcomes during and post-recession versus pre-recession. We utilized 2005-2006, 2008-2009, and 2010-2011 data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Females had lower odds of depression diagnoses during and post-recession and better mental health during the recession, but higher odds of anxiety diagnoses post-recession. Males had lower odds of depression diagnoses and better mental health during and post-recession and lower Kessler 6 scores post-recession. We conducted stratified analyses, which confirmed that the aforementioned findings were consistent across the four different regions of the U.S., by employment status, income and health care utilization. Importantly, we found that the higher odds of anxiety diagnoses among females after the recession were mainly prominent among specific subgroups of females: those who lived in the Northeast or the Midwest, the unemployed, and those with low household income. Gender differences in mental health in association with the economic recession highlight the importance of policymakers taking these differences into consideration when designing economic and social policies to address economic downturns. Future research should examine the reasons behind the decreased depression diagnoses among both genders, and whether they signify decreased mental healthcare utilization or increased social support and more time for exercise and leisure activities.
- ItemResidential High-Speed Internet Among Those Likely to Benefit From an Online Health Insurance Marketplace(SAGE Publications, Inc., 2016) Boudreaux, Michel H.; Gonzales, Gilbert; Blewett, Lynn; Fried, Brett; Karaca-Mandic, PinarUsing data from the 2013 American Community Survey, we found that 24.3 million people (about 1 in 4) who were either eligible for Medicaid/Children’s Health Inusrance Program (CHIP) or appeared likely to shop for Qualified Health Plan (QHP) lacked residential high-speed Internet. Specifically, 28.6% or 18.9 million people eligible for Medicaid/CHIP and 17.1% or 5.5 million people who appeared likely to shop for a QHP did not have high-speed Internet in the home. For both the Medicaid/CHIP eligible and those likely to shop for a QHP, the proportion of people living in households without Internet varied substantially by race, geography, and other socio-demographic characteristics.
- ItemFuture expenditure risk of silent members: a statistical analysis(Springer Nature, 2016-07-29) Krause, Trudy Millard; Donderici, Elifnur Yay; Cazaban, Cecilia Ganduglia; Franzini, LuisaSilent-members are members of a medical health plan who submit no claims for healthcare services in a benefit year despite 12 months of continuous-enrollment. This study was conducted to evaluate the future expenditure risk of commercial-insured members who avoid all medical care despite coverage. In order to determine if the silent-members were at greater risk, we compared them to members who received care in the anchor year (2009) but had low-expenditures. The low-expenditure members were assumed to represent persons without significant medical conditions and without care-avoidance behaviors. We examined the claims experience of a cohort of silent members in the 2 years after the silent year (2009) and compared it with the corresponding claims experience for a cohort of low-expenditure members from the same anchor year (2009). Members of commercial health plans (BCBS of Texas) were selected based on continuous-enrollment in 2009. Two sub-groups were identified based on annual claims expenditure: Care avoiders were members with 12 months continuous-enrollment and no medical claims, and are thus referred to as “silent members” in the insurance industry. Low-Expenditure members were those with 12 months continuous-enrollment and total PMPY (per member per year) annual medical claims expenditure in the lowest 10th percentile of members with claims experience. “Low-expenditure” members served as a comparison group to the “silent members”, under the assumption that such claimants were using benefits for minor healthcare issues as needed. Key variables were enrollment and expenditures. Enrollment data identified demographics and continuous-enrollment. Medical claims data were used to calculate utilization and expenditures. All claims data were de-identified and no consent was required, as approved by the Institutional Review Board. No research involved human subjects. Multivariate logistic regression models were applied. Silent members who seek care in subsequent years have a greater probability of becoming high-expenditure claimants than those with low-expenditure experience. For silent members who subsequently seek treatment, the probability of becoming high-expenditure is significantly greater than low-expenditure members from the anchor year. The implications of future high costs for silent members who become claimants may support the need for additional research to address the risks of care avoidance behaviors.
- ItemADVANCING THE HEALTH OF UNDERSERVED COMMUNITIES ACROSS THE UNITED STATES: OPPORTUNITIES TO IMPROVE HEALTH CENTER QUALITY OF CARE AND PATIENT EXPERIENCE(2017) Nair, Suma; Chen, Jie; Health Services Administration; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)1 in 13 people in the United States receives care at a community health center. As health center services become an increasing percentage of all primary care services delivered in the United States, their success is vital to national efforts to advance health and manage costs. This dissertation presents three studies, addressing critical gaps in our understanding of health center quality and quality improvement opportunities. The first study examined the association between ambulatory care accreditation and 14 clinical quality measures in 1,198 health centers. Results demonstrated that accredited centers achieved higher performance on adult weight screening and follow up, tobacco cessation intervention, and use of lipid-lowering therapy. Universal accreditation could lead to an additional 552,087 patients receiving weight screening and follow up, 157,434 receiving tobacco cessation interventions, and 25,289 receiving lipid-lowering therapy. Findings suggest universal accreditation could contribute to quality gains and facilitate health disparity reduction. The second study used the first nationally representative dataset of health center PEC, to investigate the association between five measures of PEC (access to care, provider communication, office staff interactions, follow up on results and overall provider rating) and patient and health center characteristics. Results demonstrated that PEC ratings varied significantly by race/ethnicity, health and mental health status, education and income levels, and language. Findings highlight PEC improvement opportunities as well as the importance of patient-mix adjustment of PEC ratings in value-based payment. The third study evaluated the association between PEC and health center quality of care. Quality of care metrics included receipt of care, health behaviors, patient activation, and clinical outcomes in health center patients. Results showed that PEC ratings were associated with receipt of care, as well as patient adherence and activation. The findings support the importance of measuring PEC as a key determinant of quality, as well improving PEC as a driver for improvement for other aspects of care quality. All three studies were the first to our knowledge to use nationally representative health center data to examine these dimensions of quality and provide significant contributions towards our understanding of health center quality and related quality improvement and policy implications.
- ItemCommunity Living and Health Services Utilization among the Aging Services Network Population(2017) Gaeta, Raphael; Simon-Rusinowitz, Lori; Chen, Jie; Health Services Administration; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)By 2050, the number of older adults will increase from 67 million to 111 million, or roughly 28 percent of the total U.S. population. Age is a principal predictor of physical health status as well as functional and cognitive limitation. As the aging population grows, so too will the demand for long-term services and supports (LTSS) and healthcare services. Despite this intersection, LTSS and healthcare systems are highly disconnected. The Aging Services Network, authorized and partially financed by the Older Americans Act (OAA), may play an important role in an emerging trend toward integrating services. Yet, OAA research is lacking. Existing OAA research faces several obstacles, including handling program variation resulting from a decentralized Aging Services Network, identifying non-user comparison groups for OAA study samples, and limited utility of national datasets. Studies often rely on highly descriptive methods, indirect comparisons to the general population of older adults, or state-restricted analysis. This dissertation addresses several gaps in the research. The first study aims to identify factors associated with community tenure and participation among low-income elderly living in subsidized housing. The research is grounded in conceptual frameworks from the World Health Organization. In-depth interviews and focus groups are used to explore these associations among elderly HUD building residents in Prince George's County, Maryland. The second study aims to identify multilevel predictors of OAA Title III services participation. This study develops a conceptual framework based on the Andersen Behavioral Model of Health Services Use, and uses a merged data set from the nationally representative Health and Retirement Study with geographic data and relevant state policies. The third study further examines the relationship between OAA Title III services participation and patterns of healthcare utilization. This dissertation research provides evidence for the importance of OAA Title III services, including for elderly HUD beneficiaries. Findings from multivariate regression analyses provide evidence for (1) county level targeting criteria used to measure LTSS need and direct OAA Title III funding, (2) substantial influence of Medicaid on access to OAA Title III services, and (3) changes in mix of health care services use among OAA Title III services participants over time.
- ItemDeterminants of Unintended Pregnancy and Modern Family Planning Use(2017) Kim, Theresa Youngjoo; Boudreaux, Michel H; Health Services Administration; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)Unintended pregnancy, defined as a pregnancy that is mistimed or unwanted, is one of the world’s most common negative health outcomes. Furthermore, the United Nations Population Fund has found that 225 million women wish to delay or avoid pregnancy yet do not engage in modern family planning method use. Unintended pregnancy affects both maternal health (by way of nutrient deficiency, reproductive organ deficiency, and mental health) and child health (low birth weight, reduced gestational age, and nursing difficulties). The most life-saving and cost-saving means to prevent unintended pregnancy is to encourage modern family planning use. This dissertation examines family planning and unintended pregnancy in three different national contexts. In these studies, I: 1. Decompose the differences in unintended pregnancy rates for black and Hispanic women compared to white women in the United States; 2. Examine the relationship among indicators of health literacy, health system access, and utilization of modern family planning in Senegal; 3. Evaluate an intervention in Benin designed to increase modern family planning use. My research found that black and Hispanic women had a greater likelihood of unintended pregnancy compared to white women. However, psychosocial and socioeconomic factors contributed to the greater likelihoods of unintended pregnancy among racial and ethnic minorities. Among indicators of health literacy, oral and visual messages were the strongest predictors of health system access and modern family planning use in Senegal. The conclusion of the intervention in Benin found that social diffusion behaviors increased among people in the treatment group, and furthermore, the intervention did reduce unmet need for modern family planning use. These research results, though from different research studies, can imply that increasing access as much as possible to modern family planning use can ultimately prevent unintended pregnancy.
- ItemPREVENTIVE CARE UTILIZATION AND ITS IMPACT ON POTENTIALLY PREVENTABLE HOSPITALIZATIONS: IMPLICATIONS OF MEDICAID COST-SHARING, MEDICAID EXPANSION, AND THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT FOR VULNERABLE POPULATIONS(2017) Bloodworth, Robin; Chen, Jie; Health Services Administration; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)About half of Americans have at least one chronic disease, and chronic diseases account for nearly 90% of healthcare expenditures in the US. Primary care can reduce potentially preventable hospitalizations and overall costs of chronic diseases. However, only about 3% of US healthcare spending is on prevention. Racial/ethnic disparities and income disparities have been well documented in the use of primary care. The ACA expanded insurance coverage for millions of Americans and included a mandate that all insurance plans must cover recommended preventive services at no cost to the patient. Literature shows the ACA resulted in an increase in access to care, but results on utilization rates of primary care post-ACA are mixed. Using nationally representative data sets from 2009-2015, I examined the utilization rates of preventive services among vulnerable populations after the full implementation of the ACA, and how Medicaid state policy and expansion under the ACA affected the utilization of preventive services among vulnerable populations. Next, using the Maryland Medical Care Database from 2012-2014, I examined how continuity of primary care affects the odds of having any hospitalization as well as potentially preventable hospitalizations. I found that the ACA was associated with an increase in preventive services recommended yearly, and the ACA was not associated with disparities in preventive service utilization among vulnerable populations. Additionally, I found that state Medicaid policies on preventive services were associated with increased utilization of flu shot, but Medicaid expansion was not associated with increased utilization of preventive services or many changes in disparities in preventive service utilization among vulnerable populations. Finally, I found that primary care, especially ongoing primary care, was strongly associated with a decrease in the odds of having any hospitalization and potentially preventable hospitalizations. Results suggest that increased access alone will not increase utilization rates and reduce health disparities, but rather, a focus on education of what coverage options are available through the ACA, the importance of ongoing primary care, and how to navigate the healthcare system once insured could increase utilization of preventive care, especially in vulnerable populations.
- ItemSocioeconomic Position, Gender, and HPV Vaccine Utilization(2018) Rogers, Taylor; Boudreaux, Michel; Thomas, Stephen B; Health Services Administration; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)In 2011-2014, the prevalence of HPV was higher in adult males compared to adult females. HPV and its associated health outcomes can be prevented through the completion of the 3-dose HPV vaccine series. Using the 2010 - 2016 National Immunization Survey - Teen, I examined the association of family income and gender with three HPV vaccine utilization outcomes: (1) receipt of provider recommendation; (2) HPV vaccine initiation; and (3) HPV vaccine completion using logistic regressions. Results suggested that family income was negatively correlated with HPV vaccine outcomes regardless of gender and controlling for other covariates. I also found that males had lower vaccine use compared to females, regardless of income. In the second analysis I investigated if the 2011 ACIP guideline increased vaccine utilization outcomes using a difference-in-differences. This analysis suggested that the new guideline increased recommendations by 24 percentage points for males, relative to females (P<0.01), HPV vaccine initiation improved by 23 percentage points (P<0.01), and vaccine completion improved by 10 percentage points (P<0.01).
- ItemEFFECTS OF MEDICAID STATE PLAN DENTAL BENEFITS ON DENTAL VISITS AMONG NON-ELDERLY ADULTS(2018) Marthey, Daniel Joseph; Franzini, Luisa; Health Services Administration; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey and optional Health Care Access module, I analyzed dental visits between insurance types and between three levels of Medicaid dental coverage for non-elderly adults in each state defined as no benefits or emergency-only, offering 1-4 services and offering 5 or more service types. I find Medicaid adults are less likely to experience a dental visit compared with adults covered by private insurance. I also find a statistically significant relationship between the level of benefits offered to beneficiaries and the odds of experiencing a dental visit in the previous year. Understanding factors associated with the use of dental services is necessary to adequately address health needs of the Medicaid population and unnecessary emergency room use for non-emergency dental services.
- ItemA randomized controlled trial testing the effectiveness of a paramedic-delivered care transitions intervention to reduce emergency department revisits(Springer Nature, 2018-05-03) Mi, Ranran; Hollander, Matthew M.; Jones, Courtney M. C.; DuGoff, Eva H.; Caprio, Thomas V.; Cushman, Jeremy T.; Kind, Amy J. H.; Lohmeier, Michael; Shah, Manish N.Approximately 20% of community-dwelling older adults discharged from the emergency department (ED) return to an ED within 30 days, an occurrence partially resulting from poor care transitions. Prior published interventions to improve the ED-to-home transition have either lacked feasibility or effectiveness. The Care Transitions Intervention (CTI) has been validated to decrease rehospitalization among patients transitioning from the hospital to the home but has never been tested for patients transitioning from the ED to the home. Paramedics, traditionally involved only in emergency care, are well-positioned to deliver the CTI, but have never been previously evaluated in this role. This single-blinded randomized controlled trial tests whether the paramedic-delivered ED-to-home CTI reduces community-dwelling older adults’ ED revisits in the 30 days after an index visit. We are prospectively recruiting patients aged≥ 60 years at 3 EDs in Rochester, NY and Madison, WI to enroll 2400 patient subjects. Subjects are randomized into control and treatment groups, with the latter receiving the adapted CTI. The intervention consists of the paramedic performing one home visit and up to three follow-up phone calls. During these interactions, the paramedic follows the CTI approach by coaching patients toward their goals, with a focus on their personal health record, medication management, red flags, and primary care follow-up. We follow patient participants for 30 days. All receive a survey during the index ED visit to capture baseline demographic and health information and two telephone-based surveys to assess process objectives and outcomes. We also perform a medical record review. The primary outcome is the odds of ED revisit within 30 days after discharge from the index ED visit. This is the first study to test whether the CTI, applied to the ED-to-home transition and delivered by community paramedics, can decrease the rate at which older adults revisit an ED. Outcomes from this research will help address a major emergency care challenge by supporting older adults in the transition from the ED to home, thereby improving health outcomes for this population and reducing potentially avoidable ED visits.
- ItemAddressing refugee health through evidence-based policies: A case study(Elsevier, 2018-06) Thiel de Bocanegra, Heike; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Ingleby, J. David; Pottie, Kevin; Tchangalova, Nedelina; Allen, Sophia I.; Smith-Gagen, Julie; Hidalgo, BerthaThe cumulative total of persons forced to leave their country for fear of persecution or organized violence reached an unprecedented 24.5 million by the end of 2015. Providing equitable access to appropriate health services for these highly diverse newcomers poses challenges for receiving countries. In this case study, we illustrate the importance of translating epidemiology into policy to address the health needs of refugees by highlighting examples of what works as well as identifying important policy-relevant gaps in knowledge. First, we formed an international working group of epidemiologists and health services researchers to identify available literature on the intersection of epidemiology, policy, and refugee health. Second, we created a synopsis of findings to inform a recommendation for integration of policy and epidemiology to support refugee health in the United States and other high-income receiving countries. Third, we identified eight key areas to guide the involvement of epidemiologists in addressing refugee health concerns. The complexity and uniqueness of refugee health issues, and the need to develop sustainable management information systems, require epidemiologists to expand their repertoire of skills to identify health patterns among arriving refugees, monitor access to appropriately designed health services, address inequities, and communicate with policy makers and multidisciplinary teams.
- ItemThe impact of integrating medical assistants and community health workers on diabetes care management in community health centers(Springer Nature, 2018-11-20) Rodriguez, Hector P.; Friedberg, Mark W.; Vargas-Bustamante, Arturo; Chen, Xiao; Martinez, Ana E.; Roby, Dylan H.To compare the impact of implementing team-based diabetes care management involving community health workers (CHWs) vs. medical assistants (MA) in community health centers (CHCs) on diabetes care processes, intermediate outcomes, and patients’ experiences of chronic care. Patients in the CHW intervention arm had improved annual glycated hemoglobin testing (18.5%, p < 0.001), while patients in the MA intervention arm had improved low-density lipoprotein cholesterol control (8.4%, p < 0.05) and reported better chronic care experiences over time (β=7.5, p < 0.001). Except for chronic care experiences (p < 0.05) for patients in the MA intervention group, difference-in-difference estimates were not statistically significant because control group patients also improved over time. Some diabetes care processes improved significantly more for control group patients than intervention group patients. Key informant interviews revealed that immediate patient care issues sometimes crowded out diabetes care management activities, especially for MAs. Diabetes care improved in CHCs integrating CHWs and MAs onto primary care teams, but the improvements were no different than improvements observed among matched control group patients. Greater improvement using CHW and MA team-based approaches may be possible if practice leaders minimize use of these personnel to cover shortages that often arise in busy primary care practices.
- ItemHealth Policy, Care Coordination, and Racial and Ethnic Disparities Among US Adults Aged 18-64 with Serious Psychological Distress(2019) Novak, Priscilla; Chen, Jie; Health Services Administration; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)About one in five Americans have a mental health condition, and in any given year, 3-5% of the population experiences serious psychological distress (SPD). The goal of this dissertation is to examine the impact of health policy on racial and ethnic disparities among people experiencing SPD. The literature review in my dissertation details evidence on systemic racial and ethnic differences in access, quality, and care coordination. I develop a causal theory examining the reasons why the problem of SPD and racial and ethnic health disparities exist and specific evidence that illuminates how the problems come into existence. Using National Health Interview Survey data from 2011-2016, access to care among Non-Hispanic (NH) Whites, NH Blacks and Hispanics with SPD is examined. Findings suggest that in comparison to NH Whites, NH Blacks and Hispanics experienced greater gains in health care access following the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Next, using data from the 2015 and 2016 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, differences in racial and ethnic minorities being served by usual sources of care with care coordination services is examined. Findings suggest that in comparison with NH Whites with SPD, Hispanics with SPD had lower odds of being seen at a Patient Centered Medical Home (OR 0.55, (p <0.05)). Hispanics had higher odds (1.29 (p <0.03)) of being seen at a practice that used case managers; and Non-Hispanic Blacks with SPD had higher odds (3.25 (p< 0.001)) of being seen at a practice that used care managers. Given that people with diabetes experiences mental health conditions occur at about twice the rate of the general population, this dissertation examined the quality of care provided to people with doctor-diagnosed diabetes and SPD using data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Findings suggest that between 2012 and 2016, racial and ethnic disparities in the receipt of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) testing improved but were not eliminated. Results suggest that increased health insurance coverage alone does not eliminate health disparities, and work remains to be done to ensure that all Americans benefit from high-quality, evidence-based care.
- ItemTHE EXAMINATION OF NATIONAL-NUTRITION POLICIES ON NONCOMMUNICABLE DISEASE MORTALITY AT VARIOUS STAGES OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: A CROSS-COUNTRY PERSPECTIVE(2019) Gupta, Manisha; Franzini, Luisa; Health Services Administration; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)The acceleration of economic growth over the past few decades introduces the need to reorient policy to address the needs and challenges for a healthier population. This paper will review the effectiveness of national nutrition policies targeting overweight, healthy diets during pregnancy, infancy and childhood, and noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) across advanced economies and transitional economies. The level of expansion and industrialization of food systems around the world have had a direct impact on nutritional status and health. Considering the magnitude of nationwide public health responses to shifts in mortality have varied over time, this introduces the need to assess the ability for dietary-related policies to successfully reduce NCDs. Results from this analysis can provide a strong rationale as to when interventions will be most effective as well as ways in which we can carry out a timely response in establishing effective policies for countries at different levels of economic development.