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- ItemA Force for Reform: The American Presbyterian Mission Press in China, 1836-1870(1877) Dove, Kay Lee; Folsom, Kenneth E.; History; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)The American Presbyterian Mission Press (PMP) was a vital, if indirect, force in stimulating intellectual reform in China. During its early years, 1836-1870, the PMP developed technological innovations in the printing of the Chinese language that led to the modernization of the Chinese printing industry, which, in turn, provided textbooks for modern education and periodical literature for the development of public opinion. At the same time, the Press trained a corps of Chinese in modern printing technology, which was then able to apply this training in Chinese private and governmental printing offices. The PMP worked with Chinese printing establishments, selling them Chinese type and assisting them to purchase printing presses and other equipment which was necessary for use with metal movable type. Before the 19th century Chinese printing had become a finely developed art, but by this time, printing technology in Europe and America had modernized, and it was more efficient and less expensive. Type founders and missionaries in Europe and Asia reduced the 40,000-character Chinese language to amanageable number by determining which characters were necessary for printing Christian literature. Then they mass-produced them in metal movable type. The PMP was the pioneer that succeeded in this effort, thereby modernizing China's printing industry and promoting the massive introduction of Western secular as well as religious thought. The modernization of China in general rests upon the modernization of the printing industry, for this development preceded and made possible the reforms which followed it.
- ItemA Comparison of Irony in W.M. Thackeray and Thomas Mann (Until 1918)(1950) Mohr, William; Foreign Study; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, MD)In our comparison of the irony found in Mann and Thackeray we will first discuss irony in its more concrete aspects, ironic content and then ironic form. Further, and particularly in connection with Mann, we will speak about the nature and position of the artist. This topic is actually another aspect of ironic content, but it is such an important problem in Mann's early works that it deserves special consideration. And finally, we will return to Mann's metaphysical irony.
- ItemWILHELM WEITLING: HIS DOCTRINES AND AGITATION IN SWITZERLAND(1950) Flavin, Harold; Cunz, Dieter; Languages, Literatures, & Cultures; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)
- ItemTHE BALTIMORE BUSINESS COMMUNITY AND THE SECESSION CRISIS, 1860-1861(1952) Catton, William B.; History; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)
- ItemElard von Oldenburg-Januschau - The Portrait of a Junker under William II(1954) von Mayr, Wilfred Ernest von Mayr; Bauer, Richard H.; History; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)
- ItemDER HAUPTMANN VON KOEPENICK Wirklichkeit und Dichtung am Beispiel des Schauspiels von Carl Zuckmayer(1954) Werner, Sibylle B.; Zucker, Adolph E.; Languages, Literatures, & Cultures; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)Die deutsche Dramatik des 20. Jahrhunderts uebt gegenueber Gegenwartsstoffen sichtlich eine starke Zurueckhaltung aus. Zu den Urnachen, die hier ununtersucht bleiben koennen, gehoert gewiss die, dass die Dramatiker hier jene historische Distanz vermissen, die es ihnen ermoeglicht, eine Begebenheit aus dem Tagesgeschehen und aus dem nuechtemen Bereich der Wirklichkeit in einen zeitlosen Raum zu ruecken. Carl Zuckmayers Der Haupmann Koepenick ist zweifellos eines der bedeutendsten und dichterisch geschlossensten Schauspiele, das ein Ereignis unserer Zeit, naemlich des 20. Jahrhunderts, dramatisch gestaltet hat. Der Dichter gehoert der bisher letzten grossen deutschen Schriftstellergeneration an, die - im ausgehenden vorigen Jahrhundert geboren -- ein ihr Dasein bestinunendes Grunderlebnis im Trommelfeuer des Ersten Weltkrieges empfing. Er und Berthold Brecht, der sich ganz der marxistischen Ideologie verschrieben hat, sind heute die fuehrenden deutschen Dramatiker. Zuckmayer, der im Dritten Reich Deutschland verliess und vor mehr als einem Jahrzehnt amerikanischer Staatsbuerger wurde, wurde nach dem Kriege auf den deutschen Buehnen haeufiger aufgefuehrt, als irgend ein anderer lebender deutscher Autor. Wenn auch sein im Zweiten Weltkrieg spielendes Stueck Des Teufels General das deutsche Publikum der Nachkriegszeit staerlrnr erschuetterte, als seine uebrigen Dramen, so erscheint Der Hauptmann von Koepenick, den er ein deutsches Maerchen nennt, als am klarsten durchkomponiert und in der Verdichtung von Wirklichkeit und Fiktion kuenstlerisch am besten geglueckt. Die ausserordentliche Buehnenwirksamkeit dieses Werkes verhilft ihm auch nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg zu staendigen Neuinszenierungen, die die unverminderte Frische dieses Schauspiels beweisen. So erscheint es nicht ohne Reiz, das alte Problem Wirklichkeit und Dichtung an diesem Stueck zu untersuchen. In den ersten grossen Abschnitt der Arbeit wird versucht werden, aus dem uns zur Verfuegung stehenden Material -- Zeitungen, die Erzaehlung Wilhelm Schaefers und die Selbstbiographie -- den Lebensweg des Schusters Wilhelm Voigt einschliesslich seiner Tat, die ihn beruehmt machte, und des Prozesses der durch die Presse gingen, darzustellen. Der zweite Abschnitt dient der Analyse von Zuclanayers Schauspiel. Hier werden wir weniger eine genaue und detaillierte Wiedergabe des Inhaltes bringen, als vielmehr an Hand der Handlung des Stueckes versuchen Dramaturgie und inneren Gehalt zu erklaeren. Weiter umfasst das Kapitel einige theatergeschichtliche Anmerkungen, die sich besonders mit der Wirkung und dem Erfolg des Stueckes und seines Helden beiseiner Urauffuehrung im Jahre 1931 beschaeftigen. Im dritten und letzten Hauptkapitel versucht die Verfasserin schliesslich Wirklichkeit und Dichtung des Stoffes auf einen gemeinsamen Nenner zu bringe. Besonderer Betonung liegt hier auf der Person Wilhelm Voigts, wie sie uns aus den historischen Quellen uebermittelt wurde, und wie Zuckmayer diese Gestalt umformte. Nach einer zusammenfassenden Schlussbetrachtung folgt dem Quellenverzeichnis ein kurzer Anhang, mit biographischen Notizen ueber den Autor Carl Zuckmayer, einer Quellenkritik sowie der Szenenfolge des Schauspiels und einer Reproduktion des Titelbildes der Selbstbiographie Voigts.
- ItemThe Political Career of Joseph I. France of Maryland, 1906-1921(1955) Geoghegan, Sally B.; Merrill, Horace S.; History; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)
- ItemGerman Public Opinion on the Fourteen Points January 1918 to October 1918(1956) Moeller, Walter Otto; Prange, Gordon W.; History; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)
- ItemJohn Fellows: A Minor American Deist(1956) Stevens, George L.; Aldridge, Alfred O.; English; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)
- ItemThe United States Army's Contribution to the Marshall Mission in China January 1, 1946, to March 1, 1947(1957) Wilson, Wesley Carlton; Prange, Gordon W.; History; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)
- ItemBritish Influence in Mesopotemia 1900-1914(1957) Amin, Abdul Amir; History; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)Although several European powers showed early interest in the Persian Gulf and Mesopotamia, its natural land extension, Britain was more successful than her rivals in exploiting commercial and political possibilities in the area, and over a period of three centuries gradually emerged as the dominant foreign power there.
- ItemHenry Theodore Tuckerman as Revealed in his Published Works(1959) Ellsworth, Richard Grant; Beall, Otho T.; American Civilization; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)Henry Theodore Tuckerman, as revealed in his published works, was, in many ways, a model of the mid-nineteenth century American. In his travel accounts, his historical and biographical scholarship, his social and political attitudes, his artistic and literary criteria, is revealed his sincere allegiance to the Romantic Idealism which dominated his day. This allegiance is shown in his belief in the fundamental goodness and inevitable progress of mankind; in his basic individualism, an almost transcendental egocentrism, which mystically identified the human soul with God, and interpreted self-reliance in terms of intuitional supranatural apprehension; in his dichotomization of his realities, separating the Ideal from the practical, the intuitive from the reasonable, the commonplace from the beautiful, the here and now from the distant and the past; in his acceptance of Nature as the representation of the Ideal, and of the feminine as the symbol of the Beautiful; in his fealty to emotion and sympathy as the mystical keys to all human relationships; in his strict and didactic morality; and in his professed national ism and proclamation of divine purpose and destiny in America . Yet, he was conservative in his personal refusal to become involved in reformism, in either outright abolitionism or feminism; in his determined and maintained attitude of Brahmin aloofness from "the herd" and "the multitude"; in his willingness to submit himself to governmental mandate, to support, at least nominally, what was legal and generally accepted; and in his overly-developed and almost unnatural reticence which prevented his from ever achieving that intense ego-exploration imperative within the Romantic philosophy. His published works reveal him to have been profoundly influenced by three major factors in his private live: his mother's death, his Italian residence, and his deep aversion for the commercial life. Possibly, in his need for social (and, especially, feminine) acceptability, his adoration of the ideal woman, and, perhaps, his easy acceptance of the sentimental and the emotional. His Italian travels and residence introduced him to the artistic experience and instilled in him a determination to devote his life to the Beautiful and to the encouragement of its creation and appreciation. And His aversion to the common precepts and standards demanded by American commercialistic enterprise influenced this decision, and shaped his life philosophy in its declaration of an over-stressed materiality in American life, and consequent under-development of the spiritual and the intellectual. With the exception of some of his better poems, Tuckerman's travel accounts best reveal his personal attitutdes and feelings toward his time and his world. As a scholar, Tuckerman read widely, but not deeply. His recorded perceptions almost always appear to be reflections of the parallel conclusions of his greater contemporaries. But he considered his theories his own, and, although he often documented a though or a conclusion, he never admitted to an intellectual debt or spiritual guidance. Tuckerman's greatest significance is in his constant effort to popularize the Beautiful, and thus to enrich American life. He sought always to broaden the public perceptions, to increase American aesthetic appreciation, to combat American reoccupation with commercialism. He was ever the propagandizer for good taste and cultural cultivation. His published works all evidence this. As a recorder of travels, he encouraged an appreciation for European cultural achievement. As a historian and biographer, he was narrative and moralistic. As a literary and art critic, he ever diligently encouraged the writer and the artist, and always sympathetically explained and interpreted to their audience. As a poet and author in his own right, although he often proved sympathetic with the sentimental demands of his age, he, nevertheless, in spite of such lapses, always strove to broaden the public outlook toward the Beautiful and the Cultural as he perceived them to be. That his audience appreciated his effort is readily apparent in his evident contemporary popularity. But his death and the end of his social influence, the broad standard and contemporary nature of his appeal , and the swiftly changing public interest, all combined to prove his fame ephemeral, and to banish him to a modern obscurity unworthy of his sincere intent and effort, and obvious contemporary accomplishment. Henry Theodore Tuckerman deserves to be remembered not only for his yet-standard biographical scholarship, and his service as a historian of art and artists in America, but also for his exemplary thought and attitude, the cultured reflections of the literary and artistic standards of mid-nineteenth century America.
- ItemSocial and Political Thought In The Early Narrative Of Rómula Gallegos(1961) Allen, R.F.; de Nemes, Graciela Palau; Languages, Literatures, & Cultures; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)This dissertation is a study of the essays and short stories written by Rómulo Gallegos in the early years of the twentieth century. It traces his social and political ideas which were set forth in his essays and transferred into the early narrative work of the author. The essays and short stories, presented chronologically according to their date of publication, represent his successive works. Gallegos' ideas derive from the corruption of his native Venezuela ruled by anarchy and dictatorship. Born in Caracas in 1884 under the dictatorial regime of Cipriano Castro, Gallegos first attracted a reading public in 1906 with his collection of essays published originally in the literary journal La Alborada. The essays, from the obscure files of this long dead periodical, constitute the symposium entitled Una posición en la vida, 1954. Showing the influence of nineteenth century European and Latin-American positivism, these essays set forth his fundamental social and political beliefs and reforms . Another dictator, Juan Vicente Gómez, put an end to this literary activity by closing the review. Gallegos then made his debut as a short story writer, publishing more than thirty stories in the literary periodicals entitled El Cojo Ilustrado, La Revista, Actualidades, and La Novela Semanal. In these stories, the patriotic preoccupations of the essays come to life. Eventually Gallegos became a novelist, establishing himself as a major writer of Spanish-American fiction. He is noted for his intention to effect reform and for his interest in the traditions and the national soul of the Venezuelan people. This dissertation shows the trends started in the essays, applied to the short stories, and developed to a larger scope in the novel.
- ItemThe Administration of Ottoman Algeria (1517-1830)(1962) Roughton, Richard Allen; Rivlin, Helen A.; History; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)In the early sixteenth century Aruc and Hayru'd-Din Barbarossa established themselves as successful pirate captains in the western Mediterranean Sea. Aruc, the leader of their enterprises until his death in 1518, became aware of the political vacuum which existed in the Magrib and as a result worked to establish a personal kingdom. In 1517, he was invited to Algiers to drive out the Spanish and was killed fighting to maintain his position there. Hayru'd-Din then assumed control of Algiers and brought that city and all the territory he subsequently conquered into the Ottoman Empire. Barbarossa was unable to consolidate his position in North Africa and he withdrew to Cicelli because of the opposition of Spain and the rebellious tribes in the area around Algiers. By 1525 Hayru'd-Din was in a position to return to Algiers and fight successfully against his Spanish adversaries. In a series of military engagements the corsair reduced the Spanish Empire in North Africa to one enclave, Oran, and defeated the Spanish fleet. The Ottoman Sultan, Suleyman I, took notice of these accomplishments and made Barbarossa Kaptan Pasa (admiral) of the Turkish fleet. With Hayru'd-Din as admiral, the Ottoman navy dominated the Mediterranean Sea. Following Hayru'd-Din's death in 1546, control of Algiers passed quickly from the Barbarossa family to the Janissaries stationed in the Pasalik (province). While the province continued to recognize the Turkish Sultan as suzerain, political control remained in the hands of the Janissaries until the French conquest of Algeria in 1830. The fiction of direct Ottoman control was eventually abandoned when in 1710 the Sultan issued a firman (decree) that vested executive authority in a Dey elected by the Turkish soldiers stationed in Algeria. Despite the dominant role played by the Janissaries in Algeria, their economic dependence on the activities of the Ta'ifa ul-Ru'asa (corporation of corsair captains) forced them to share some political power with that body. The Ta'ifa ul-Ru'asa was ultimately responsible' for the institution of the Deylik in 1671 when the army failed to keep order in the Pasalik. The country did not suffer greatly from the political changes that occurred throughout this period, since the administration of the state remained in the hands of a bureaucracy which competently carried out the duties of government and maintained law and order. Indeed, though over half of the thirty elected Deys were assassinated, Algeria still functioned as a solvent, effective and generally well-ordered state. Eventually, however, the Pasalik's preoccupation with piracy and the designs of an Empire-conscious French minister l led Ottoman Algeria to the fatal conflict with France and to ultimate extinction.
- ItemThe Woman Suffrage Movement in Maryland from 1870 to 1920(1962) Son, Mal Hee; Chatelain, Verne E.; History; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)A study of woman suffrage movement in Maryland in the period from the Civil War to the First World War reveals not only the stubborn opposition and almost insurmountable difficulties con.fronting the crusaders in this cause, but also the unexpected capacity for organization and the courageous fighting qualities of women in this historic battle. In Maryland's conservative society, the feminist movement was often ridiculed; and it faced repeated disappointments even until the enactment of the Federal Woman Suffrage Amendment in 1920. Yet, it seems clear that, throughout the long struggle, the greatest single factor in achieving this major reform in Maryland society was the unquenchable spirit of the women who conducted the suffrage campaign. There were, in fact, many outstanding Maryland feminists during this period who plainly demonstrated the ability and intelligence to analyze and to manage matters of great civic and political importance . Among these, Mrs. Caroline Miller, Mrs. J. William Funck, Mrs. Elizabeth King Ellicott, and Mrs. Donald R. Hooker possibly deserve the highest accolades, although there were also others hardly less worthy of attention. This demonstrated capacity and competence in public affairs of women in Maryland was eventually recognized even after the Maryland State Assembly had finally voted to reject the Federal Woman Suffrage Amendment on the grounds of its invasion of the sacred precincts of State Rights. And it is worth notice that while Maryland has not) to this day) seen fit to ratify the Nineteenth Amendment) it has now quite capitulated to the principle of equal rights for women.
- ItemThe Muse Dons Khaki: American Songs and Music of World War I(1963) Kelly, Jacquelin Joan; Prange, Gordon W.; History; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)During the years 1917 and 1918 the United States participated in a "war to end all wars." During the conflict the government deliberately enlisted the power of song both at home and on the fighting front to help in the great task of winning the war. The idea of organized singing in the training of the U. S. Army was comparatively new at the time America entered World War I, but it soon came to be recognized as an integral part of the training itself. The government encouraged singing in the army both on marches and in leisure-time groups because it contributed substantially to the enjoyment, contentment and efficiency of the soldier. The ballads, however, that eased tired muscles after a long days march and boosted morale after a day of heavy fighting were not government sponsored songs, but parodies and GI folk songs that the Sammies themselves composed. These ditties gave glimpses of the real army, the friendly rivalry between the various branches and the traditional humor of the service. Such songs, though lusty and bawdy, preserved for posterity the spirit of the A.E.F. Then, too, songs and music proved to be of great value to the "stay-at-homes" during World War I. Our "army of the interior" responded readily to the stimulus of music. It participated in "Liberty Sings," "Bond Singing," and "Four-minute Singing" in the nation's theaters. The civilian community wanted to sing popular patriotic songs because it then felt a closer relationship to loved ones who were in service. In addition, song fests satisfied man's natural craving for security and inspiration. During the American period of the war, Tin Pan Alley rushed to the fore and supplied the country with no less than nine thousand songs from 1917 to 1919. Such ditties buoyed up sunken spirits, boosted morale, and made for a united force on the home front. Songs are usually a yardstick of the times and give us a clue as to what the entire populace is thinking or how it feels about certain issues. The songs and music of our country from 1914 to 1919 reflected not only the history but moods, manners and impulses that constituted the American way of life. In 1914 and 1915 our songs exhibited a staunch pacifism and a fervent desire to remain aloof from the political entanglements in Europe. However, in 1916, 1917 and 1918 the pacifism which had been exhibited earlier in our songs gave way to a surging pride and a firm determination to win the war. Then in 1919 our songs reflected the relief and happiness that came when the task of war was over. Music during World War I was not a luxury or a gift but a necessity. Songs were indispensable to our armed forces, but they were also a necessity for those who had to remain behind, to hope, to pray and to wait.
- ItemLafayette, America's Hero: The Growth of a Legend(1963) Bloxom, Marguerite Doris; Beall, Otho T.; English; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)The legend of Lafayette began to grow about the time of his 1784 goodwill visit to the United States. Identical biographical sketches of Lafayette appeared in several early histories of the Revolutionary War, and similar versions were included in other histories. The core of the sketch was the picture of a young French nobleman, inspired by the ideals of liberty and equality, who came to America at great personal sacrifice and his own expense to take part in the fight for freedom. His story was used to add weight to the rightness of the action of the American patriots, and to stimulate feelings of national pride. After the turn of the century, the story of Lafayette became shorter and more routine. It was dropped from some textbooks, and was greatly abbreviated in others. It seems probable that while Lafayette would not have been forgotten, his place in American history would have been small, perhaps even obscure, if he had not visited America again in 1824. During this last visit, after an absence of forty years, the General received an enthusiastic and overwhelming reception. Interest in Lafayette revived quickly, and accounts of him appeared in newspapers, periodicals and separate books. The importance of his contribution to the foundation of the United States was emphasized; as a hero, he approached the position of America's savior. In addition, his personal characteristics endeared him to the people. In all probability, Americans' lasting esteem for Lafayette was developed as a result of the 1824 visit.
- ItemThe Inn, Restaurant and Tavern Business in Ancient Pompeii(1964) Ruddell, Sharon Marie; Jashemski, Wilhelmina F.; History; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)The number of public establishments in ancient Pompeii indicates that the inn, restaurant and tavern business was one of t..'l-J.e most extensive in the town. This thesis endeavors to. study each public inn and eating house in Pompeii, and to observe the general characteristics of ancient inns, restaurants and taverns as exemplified by the excavations of the city. The first chapter discusses the various types of ancient inns, restaurants and taverns, using the Pompeian establishments as specific examples. The general features of the inns and taverns are described and illustrated. Various aspects of tavern life are discussed in the second chapter. The epigraphical evidence yielded by the excavations at Pompeii provides vivid testimony to the life in the taverns of antiquity. This information, combined with the writings of the ancient authors, portrays much of the activity in the Pompeian inns and eating houses. In the third chapter, the rol·e of the public establishments in Pompeii's city life is discussed. Their locations and areas of concentration, as well as their commercial and social importance are considered. In the Appendix, each inn, restaurant and tavern that has been excavated and identified is described. A bibliography follows each description. Wherever possible, plans of various Pompeian establishments have been included throughout the paper.
- ItemPeruvian Feather-work: Development, Purposes, and Techniques(1965) Roll, Virginia Helen; Wilbur, June C.; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)The purpose of this study was to gain knowledge of Peruvian feather-work, its development, its purposes, and the techniques involved in the production of this material. Through research and through examination of seventy-seven pieces of feather-work at seven museums, theories propounded in research were verified. In addition, discoveries were made. An additional method of stringing the feathers was discovered. A brief history of the people shows that as they developed in agriculture, they had a parallel development in cultural accomplishments. It can be assumed that the agricultural development led to more time for cultural achievements. It has become known that their accomplishments in the area of textiles were outstanding. Among their textiles, feather-work was particularly unique.
- ItemEdwin Forbes(1966) Ahrens, Jacob Edward Kent; Grubar, Francis S.; Art; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)Edwin Forbes (1839-1895) became a Special Artist for Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper in 1862, and traveled with the Union Armies during the Civil War to record the battles and camp-scenes . Approximately 150 of his battlefield sketches were reproduced in the pages of Leslie's. After the war, Forbes settled in Brooklyn, New York, where he established himself as an etcher and painter. A vast majority of his work relied on the sketches he had made during the Civil War. In 1876 he exhibited his Life Studies of the Great Army, a collection of forty etchings, at the Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition. The etchings were well received, and brought him national and international recognition as an etcher. Life Studies remains his major achievement. Forbes published Thirty Years After, An Artist's Story of the Great War in 1891. This second collection consists of several hundred etchings based on the battlefield sketches. Forbes wrote a chatty text to accompany the etchings. During the 1880's, Forbes illustrated several children's books such as Josephine Pollard's Our Naval Heroes in Words of Easy Syllables (New York, 1886). The etchings in these books are of a generally poor quality. Twelve oil paintings dealing with the Gettysburg Campaign are among his better work. They are small canvases which reveal his skill as a painter. Forbes also wrote a short account of "The Gettysburg Campaign," which remains unpublished. Besides war themes based on the field sketches, Forbes was interested mostly in animal studies. Some of his paintings from the seventies resemble Tait's work during the same period . Several charming pencil studies of ducks, hens, and other barnyard animals have been discovered in Philadelphia and Washington. Forbes' favorite animal, however, was the horse. Unfortunately, most of these studies have disappeared. One of Forbes' last achievements was the invention of a starting-gate for horse races in 1891.