Archaeology in Annapolis
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- ItemContinuities in Mexican Ritual Architecture(1965-11-29) Leone, Mark P.The topic which is chiefly responsible for this paper is the continuity forms of ritual architecture from prehistoric pagan Maya to the historic Christian Maya. However, to increase its immediate scope, the subject matter will include all of the "High Cultures" of aboriginal Mesoamerica.
- ItemMormon Ecclesiastical Courts(1970) Leone, Mark P.Mormonism is a particular example of 19th century utopias. Every utopia attempted to set up a new way of life for its adherents, Some, like the Mormons, were fundamentally religious and set out the totality of a new way of life through religious precepts. To bring that way of life into existence it was often necessary to remove the group of faithful to a new locale distant from the dominant society. In so doing, progressive removal in space and contact often meant removal from the system of civil government that was part of territorial, state and federal governments. On one side, that tended to be regarded as a threat to legally established regimes, but on the other usually it meant that a system of dealing with disputes arising within the new community had to be established. So it was also with the Mormons who settled in the Great Basin in 1847, just as Utah was being incorporated as a territory into the Union. There was no civil government of ant form, let alone statutory law and a way of implementing it.
- ItemThe Burden of Agriculture(1970) Leone, Mark P.The comparative nature of anthropology is as old as the oldest definition of the discipline. That the generalizations resulting from comparisons have been in and out of vogue among anthropologists since the foundation of the subject reflects the intellectual vagaries of the field. Usually the generalizers have been too glib or too general and hence have said little of convincing worth. But it is equally true that the particularists have often been too particular and too minute and have ended by talking to audiences consisting chiefly of themselves. Right now we seem to be at mid-swing in the course of the generalizing-particularizing pendulum. There is a large competent body of ethnographers, archaeologists, and even ethnographic archaeologists. There is also a growing group who occasionally make generalizations. These are no longer received with glacial chill, but are greeted with, at least, indifference and even with some warmth. This paper is a contribution to generalizations and it is one which could not be possible without the sound factual contribution made so consistently and well in two major cultural areas.
- ItemMormon Time(1970-08) Leone, Mark P.The Harvard Values Project carried on in New Mexico during the 1950s attempted to measure orientation of time. The temporal dimension was subdivided three ways, past, present, and future, and primary and secondary foci for the culture groups of the areas were recorded. Mormons were found to be principally oriented to the future and secondarily to the present. The same is assumed to be true of Americans generally and it is further assumed that this orientation is the product of world-rejecting Christianity, which emphasizes the greater desirability of the next life. Future-Time orientation is also the product of Protestant ideas on the nature of earthly perfection as a preparation for the other world after this one.
- ItemThe Material Culture of American Utopias(1980) Leone, Mark P.The problem I am interested in is why our culture has produced a set of utopian groups whose mundane objects--material culture--often operate explicitly at a religious as well as a utilitarian level. Both in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries American utopian groups isolated themselves from mainline American society and in doing so often established a direct relationship between their religious principles and the objects in daily use. This was, and remains, very different from the rest of America. We today do not have large ranges of objects whose religious or ideological significance is explicit and apparent to the population at large. There are, of course, iconographic items but these are in a different category since their explicit function is to represent the ineffable; they have no primary utilitarian value. Further, utopian groups usually consciously eliminated all such items. They were not concerned with crosses, emblems, statues, colored windows, and the rest of traditional Christian representationalism. Utopian groups often explicitly contained anti-iconographic statements in their doctrines.
- ItemDraft Report on Testing at 18AP34: Patrick Creagh Site(1983) Yentsch, AnneTwo days of minimal field testing (an a budget of $500) were carried out at the Patrick Creagh Site located at Prince George Street, Annapolis, Maryland on June 28-29, 1983 (see figures 1 and 2). Funding was provided by Historic Annapolis, Inc. under a grant from the City of Annapolis. Four test units were excavated to establish whether soil layers dating to the 18th century occupation of the house existed. The results of testing in each of these units is presented below together with a brief discussion of the site's eighteenth century occupants and its neighborhood.
- ItemFinal Report for National Endowment for the Humanities Grant No. RO-20600-83: Salvaging the Calvert House Site(1983-12) Yentsch, AnneThe work funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities during the period February - July 1983 enabled emergency archaeology at the Calvert Site to be carried close to completion. The research contributed significantly to an understanding of the development of Annapolis in the colonial era. In fact, work at Calvert has proved critical to the humanistic objectives of the Annapolis Archaeology Project: understanding and assessing the impact of social and economic rank on the material remains of a colonial southern, urban center. The research was also influential in establishing an archaeologically, historically, and architecturally based preservation program. The work at Calvert helped awaken the Annapolis community to the potential that archaeological research possesses and increased the community's awareness of the many changes that the city has undergone through time. Research at Calvert was also successful in attracting private and public donations for further archaeological work in the city and, in fact, as one result of the emergency grant, Historic Annapolis has been given $27,500 in City funds to be used in preparing a city-wide plan for the preservation of below-ground historic resources. City ordinances with the same objective are also being developed. The developer, Historic Inns of Annapolis, plans construction at four additional sites in the city during the next 12-24 months and has incorporated plans to find and to preserve fragile archaeological resources into these four projects as well. Finally, the educational impact of the Calvert archaeology project on the public was immense and general public interest in the work and its findings was widespread .
- ItemArchaeological Testing At The Brice House A National Historic Landmark: Interim Draft Report: The West Wing Interior(1984-08) Basalik, Kenneth J.; Brown, Ann R.; Epperson, Terrence W.The James Brice House is a National Landmark located in the Annapolis Historic District, Annapolis, Maryland. The house is being restored under a program sponsored by the InternationalMasonry Institute ( IMI ) . On November 4, 1983 the firm of Edmonson and Gallagher representing IMI, contracted with Cultural Heritage Research Services, Inc. (CHRS , Inc. ) of Brookhaven, Pennsylvania to conduct an archaeological testing program in the west yard of the Brice House. This testing was to provide information to support the final restoration design of the west wall of the west wing and to ensure that. restoration activities would not disturb important archaeological deposits surrounding the structure. The testing program in the west yard was completed during the months of November and December 1983 (see Basalik and Brown 1983).
- ItemArchaeological Testing at the Brice House, A National Historic Landmark, Annapolis, Maryland, Interim draft report: The West Wing Interior(1984-08) Basalik, Kenneth J.; Brown, Ann R.; Epperson, Terrence W.The James Brice House is a National Landmark located in the Annapolis Historic District, Annapolis, Maryland. The house is being restored under a program sponsored by the International Masonry Institute (IMI). On November 4, 1983 the firm of Edmonson and Gallagher, representing IMI, contracted with Cultural Heritage Research Services, Inc. (CHRS , Inc.) of Brookhaven, Pennsylvania to conduct an archaeological testing program in the west yard of the Brice House. This testing was to provide information to support the final restoration design of the west wall of the west wing and to ensure that restoration activities would not disturb important archaeological deposits surrounding the structure. The testing program in the west yard was completed during the months of November and December 1983 (see Basalik and Brown 1983).
- ItemPreliminary Report Archaeological Excavations at the Newman Street Site, Annapolis, Maryland(1985) Hopkins, Joseph W., IIIAs part of the Archaeology in Annapolis project in 1984, exploratory excavations were conducted in the play ground in a city park at the corner of Newman Street and Compromise Street. The site, the Newman Street site was used for the Archaeology in Public program. The excavations were part of the larger research strategy of Archaeology in Annapolis. This report summarizes the preliminary results of the 1984 field season.
- ItemFinal Report on the National Geographic Society: Archaeology of Town Planning in Annapolis, Maryland, NGS Grant Number 3116-85(1986) Leone, Mark P.; Shackel, Paul A.The purpose of the research supported by this grant was to refine our understanding of the Baroque town plan of Annapolis, Maryland through archaeology. The plan of 1695, which was prepared under the supervision of Royal Governor Francis Nicholson, has long been considered one of the most sophisticated and best preserved town plans in Colonial North America (Figure1). The town plan is well understood synchronically through the work of a number of scholars, but the plan was less well understood in terms cf its gradual development and alteration over the almost three centuries since it was laid down. Therefore, a primary goal of our work was the initiation of a diachronic understanding of town planning in Annapolis. Further, while the joint Historic Annapolis/ University of Maryland, College Park program called "Archaeology in Annapolis;" had established that a large part of the archaeological record of Annapolis was intact, no one knew how much of the original and subsequent street patterns could be recovered archaeologically, nor exactly how one could go about that. Therefore, the second aspect of this project was to establish a set of methods to document street and lot borders. Such a project was urgent since the city of Annapolis plans to dig trenches throughout the core of the Nicholson Plan to bury utility wires. Among other things, these utility trenches provided an opportunity to understand how the third dimension of a Baroque town plan, depth, was handled. This work will allow us to see how the plan was used through time to structure activities and in turn how it was altered to better suit them.
- ItemArchaeological Testing at the 193 Main St. Site, 18AP44, Annapolis, Maryland(1986) Shackel, Paul A.; Secreto, PatriciaDuring the Fall of 1985, Mr. Paul Pearson and associates, owners of 193 Main St., Annapolis, Maryland, approached Historical Annapolis Inc. to perform archaeological testing on this property. Mr. Pearson and associates have proposed the construction of a small shopping and business mall on this plot of land, which presently serves as a parking lot, as well as on the adjacent property which contains the Playhouse Theater. According to two reports produced under the sponsorship of the National Endowment for the Humanities (1971 & 1983), this section of Main St. has been an area of social and political significance since the turn of the 18th century. based on the high probability of finding significant archaeological remains, a six week program of testing was planned in the parking lot. This work plan called for an average crew of four field assistants and one supervisor. Excavations began on December 2, 1985 and ended on Jan 17, 1986. Archaeological remains uncovered within the project area were located, identified, and evaluated for potential significance. Funding for this project was generously provided by Mt. Paul Pearson and associates.
- ItemA Map of the Ridout Garden: Annapolis, Maryland(1986-01-03) Hopkins III., Joseph W.Archaeology in Annapolis, a collaborative research project of Historic Annapolis, Inc. and the University of Maryland, is engaged in sampling the range of life from the three-century history of Annapolis. As part of this project, a map was made of the historic Ridout garden. This report presents the map and discusses the place of the garden in the archaeology of historic Annapolis.
- ItemCalvert Interim Report 1: Preliminary Analysis of Features from Period 1 Associated with Posthole Building(s) at Calvert Site, Annapolis, Maryland(1986-12) Yentsch, AnneThis is the first of a series of interim reports being prepared on the Calvert Site. As interim reports, their objects are twofold: (1) To provide detailed information, in preliminary form, on particular aspects of the analysis of material from the Calvert Site to staff members at Historic Annapolis, Inc. (including those who may not be familiar with the methods, theories, and findings of historical archaeology.) (2) To summarize what is known to date and hence to serve as planning documents for and, in some cases, preliminary manuscripts of chapters that will be included in the final report on the Calvert Site. This report summarizes what is known to date about the late 17th/early 18th century posthole features that were found. These are among the earliest evidence of construction that we have been able to identify in the archaeological record for the site and within the town as a whole; they may predate the c. 1690-1720 brick house, the first story front and side walls plus remnants of the back (east) wall of which still remain intact in the fabric of the present standing structure (ie., the Governor Calvert House Hotel). There are no extant remains of any posthole building(s) contained within the Governor Calvert House Hotel as these were dismantled in the 18th century. This posthole building(s) may have been built as early as 1680-90 or as late as c. 1710 as there is archaeological evidence of use of the site beginning c. 1680, but documentary research to date has not revealed the chain of ownership in the 17th century.
- ItemA Cultural Resource Survey of the College Creek Area, Annapolis, Maryland (18AP46)(1987) Shackel, Paul A.; Williams, Eileen; Ernstein, Julie H.The following report describes a phase I survey of the College Creek area. In this area, a total of 177 shovel tests completed. The survey revealed a shell midden, tentatively identified as belonging to the Woodland phase. In addition, disturbances caused by a railroad and concrete factory were noted. Further excavation is needed to ascertain the complete nature of the College Creek site, 18AP46.
- ItemA Geophysical Survey at the Carroll House(1987-04-03) Bevan, Bruce W.The Charles Carroll House is located on the south side of historic Annapolis, where the Duke of Gloucester Street meets Spa Creek. Charles Carroll, the house builder's son, was one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. The house is a part of the property for St. Mary's Roman Catholic Church and plans are being made for the historical renovation of the house and garden. This survey detected a possible well or other type of refilled pit on the south side of the house. Several likely paths, now buried, were delineated. See Figure 1. Many areas of fill soil were mapped. There appears to be a buried earth layer, possibly a garden bed or pavement, extending east-west across the site; this interface can be partly traced beneath a recently-constructed cemetery terrace. Concentrations of debris underground were also located. While some could be lenses of trash, others could help define lost structures. This geophysical survey did not detect anything of the tavern which might have formerly been at the east side of this site.
- ItemThe Consumption of Ideas and the Production of Behavior: Past and Present in Annapolis, Maryland(1987-05) Potter, Parker B., Jr.This paper flows from the attempt currently under way in Annapolis, Maryland to operationalize a critical archaeology. The original focus of the paper was to be the reclusive nature of material culture, the ability of objects and assemblages of objects to teach and enforce standards of behavior. I was going to link that idea to the rest of the papers in this session through a metaphorical use of the concepts "production" and "consumption" to characterize the flow of ideas and the direction of social behavior. I will still mount that argument but the balance of this paper consists of a series of observations and arguments resulting from a varied set of reactions to the paper I delivered at the recent meeting of the society for Historical Archaeology, in Savannah (Potter 1987). This second set of arguments has to do with the intricacies of taking critical theory out of the classroom and putting it on the ground-- or in the ground, as the case may be. Therefore, this paper will be more about the production and consumption of the past than about production and consumption in the past.
- ItemCalvert Interim Report No. 6: Preliminary Analysis of Vertebrate Remains from the Calvert Site in Annapolis, Maryland and a Comparison with Vertebrate Remains from Sites in Souther Carolina, Georgia, and Jamaica(1987-12) Reitz, Elizabeth J.; Yentsch, Anne E.Zooarchaeological evidence from the Calvert House, Annapolis, is compared to that from several southern Atlantic coastal plain sites. Although all sites are located in estuarine settings, less evidence for the use of seafood is found at either Governor Calvert's house or at urban sites on the southern coastal plain than at rural sites from the sea islands near Charleston. In other respects, the southern coastal plain data and data from the Calvert site are not similar. This may be related to the elite social status of the Calvert Household as well as to environmental differences between the Mid-Atlantic and the southern region. Finally, the evidence from these Atlantic coast sites are compared to data from 18th century plantations in Jamaica in order to underscore the observation that early English subsistence in the New World was diverse and exhibited regional variation.
- ItemCalvert Interim Report No. 6: Preliminary Analysis of Vertebrate Remains from the Calvert Site in Annapolis, Maryland and a Comparison with Vertebrate Remains from Sites in Souther Carolina, Georgia, and Jamaica Part 2(1987-12) Reitz, Elizabeth J.Part 2 of the faunal analysis of the Calvert Site with comparisons with Atlantic coastal sites in South Carolina, Georgia, and Jamaica.