### Browsing by Author "Smolyaninov, Igor I."

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Item Analogue Quantum Gravity in Hyperbolic Metamaterials(MDPI, 2022-04-14) Smolyaninov, Igor I.; Smolyaninova, Vera N.It is well known that extraordinary photons in hyperbolic metamaterials may be described as living in an effective Minkowski spacetime, which is defined by the peculiar form of the strongly anisotropic dielectric tensor in these metamaterials. Here, we demonstrate that within the scope of this approximation, the sound waves in hyperbolic metamaterials look similar to gravitational waves, and therefore the quantized sound waves (phonons) look similar to gravitons. Such an analogue model of quantum gravity looks especially interesting near the phase transitions in hyperbolic metamaterials where it becomes possible to switch quantum gravity effects on and off as a function of metamaterial temperature. We also predict strong enhancement of sonoluminescence in ferrofluid-based hyperbolic metamaterials, which looks analogous to particle creation in strong gravitational fields.Item Development of Broadband Underwater Radio Communication for Application in Unmanned Underwater Vehicles(MDPI, 2020-05-23) Smolyaninov, Igor I.; Balzano, Quirino; Young, DendyThis paper presents several novel designs of small form factor underwater radio antennas operating in the 2 MHz, 50 MHz and 2.4 GHz bands. These antennas efficiently excite surface electromagnetic waves (SEW) which propagate along the surface of seawater. The antenna operation is made possible due to implementation of an impedance matching enclosure, which is filled with de-ionized water. Enhanced coupling to surface electromagnetic waves is enabled by the enhancement of the electromagnetic field at the antenna apex. These features allow us to make antenna dimensions considerably smaller compared to typical free space designs. They also considerably improve coupling of electromagnetic energy to the surrounding seawater. Since SEW propagation length is considerably larger than the skin depth in seawater, this technique is useful for underwater broadband wireless communication. We conclude that the developed broadband underwater radio communication technique will be useful in networking of unmanned underwater vehicles.Item Effect of Fast Scale Factor Fluctuations on Cosmological Evolution(MDPI, 2021-05-27) Smolyaninov, Igor I.In this paper, we study the corrections to the Friedmann equations due to fast fluctuations in the universe scale factor. Such fast quantum fluctuations were recently proposed as a potential solution to the cosmological constant problem. They also induce strong changes to the current sign and magnitude of the average cosmological force, thus making them one of the potential probable causes of the modification of Newtonian dynamics in galaxy-scale systems. It appears that quantum fluctuations in the scale factor also modify the Friedmann equations, leading to a considerable modification of cosmological evolution. In particular, they give rise to the late-time accelerated expansion of the universe, and they may also considerably modify the effective universe potential.Item Extra-Dimensional “Metamaterials”: A Model of Inflation Due to a Metric Signature Transition(MDPI, 2017-09-20) Smolyaninov, Igor I.Lattices of topological defects, such as Abrikosov lattices and domain wall lattices, often arise as metastable ground states in higher-dimensional field theoretical models. We demonstrate that such lattice states may be described as extra-dimensional “metamaterials” via higher-dimensional effective medium theory. A 4 + 1 dimensional extension of Maxwell electrodynamics with a compactified time-like dimension is considered as an example. It is demonstrated that from the point of view of macroscopic electrodynamics an Abrikosov lattice state in such a 4 + 1 dimensional spacetime may be described as a uniaxial hyperbolic medium. Extraordinary photons perceive this medium as a 3 + 1 dimensional Minkowski spacetime in which one of the original spatial dimensions plays the role of a new time-like coordinate. Since the metric signature of this effective spacetime depends on the Abrikosov lattice periodicity, the described model may be useful in studying metric signature transitions.Item Metamaterial Model of Tachyonic Dark Energy(MDPI, 2014-02-17) Smolyaninov, Igor I.Dark energy with negative pressure and positive energy density is believed to be responsible for the accelerated expansion of the universe. Quite a few theoretical models of dark energy are based on tachyonic fields interacting with itself and normal (bradyonic) matter. Here, we propose an experimental model of tachyonic dark energy based on hyperbolic metamaterials. Wave equation describing propagation of extraordinary light inside hyperbolic metamaterials exhibits 2 + 1 dimensional Lorentz symmetry. The role of time in the corresponding effective 3D Minkowski spacetime is played by the spatial coordinate aligned with the optical axis of the metamaterial. Nonlinear optical Kerr effect bends this spacetime resulting in effective gravitational force between extraordinary photons. We demonstrate that this model has a self-interacting tachyonic sector having negative effective pressure and positive effective energy density. Moreover, a composite multilayer SiC-Si hyperbolic metamaterial exhibits closely separated tachyonic and bradyonic sectors in the long wavelength infrared range. This system may be used as a laboratory model of inflation and late time acceleration of the universe.Item Oscillating Cosmological Force Modifies Newtonian Dynamics(MDPI, 2020-05-22) Smolyaninov, Igor I.In the Newtonian limit of general relativity a force acting on a test mass in a central gravitational field is conventionally defined by the attractive Newtonian gravity (inverse square) term plus a small repulsive cosmological force, which is proportional to the slow acceleration of the universe expansion. In this paper we considered the cosmological-force correction due to fast quantum oscillations of the universe scale factor as a potential solution of the cosmological constant problem. These fast fluctuations of the cosmological scale factor violate Lorentz invariance at the Planck scale, and they induce strong changes to the current sign and magnitude of the average cosmological force, thus making it one of the potential probable causes for the modification of Newtonian dynamics in galaxy-scale systems. The modified cosmological force may be responsible for the recently discovered “cosmic-clock” behavior of disk galaxies in the low-redshift universe. The obtained results have strong implications for astroparticle physics since they demonstrate that typical galaxy rotation curves may be obtained without (or almost without) dark-matter particles.Item Surface Electromagnetic Waves near a Black Hole Event Horizon and Their Observational Consequences(MDPI, 2022-06-07) Smolyaninov, Igor I.Localization phenomena in light, scattering from random fluctuations of matter fields and space–time metrics near a black hole horizon, were predicted to produce a pronounced peak in the angular distribution of second-harmonic light in the direction normal to the horizon. Therefore, the detection of second-harmonic generation may become a viable observational tool to study spacetime physics near event horizons of astronomical black holes. The light localization phenomena near the horizon may be facilitated by the existence of surface electromagnetic wave solutions. In this communication, we study such surface electromagnetic wave solutions near the horizon of a Schwarzschild metric, describing a black hole in vacuum. We demonstrate that such surface wave solutions must appear when quantum gravity effects are taken into account. Potential observational evidence of this effect is also discussed.Item Thermally Induced Effective Spacetimes in Self-Assembled Hyperbolic Metamaterials(MDPI, 2017-03-08) Smolyaninov, Igor I.Recent developments in gravitation theory indicate that the classic general relativity is an effective macroscopic theory which will be eventually replaced with a more fundamental theory based on thermodynamics of yet unknown microscopic degrees of freedom. Here we consider thermodynamics of an effective spacetime which may be formed under the influence of an external magnetic field in a cobalt ferrofluid. It appears that the extraordinary photons propagating inside the ferrofluid perceive thermal gradients in the ferrofluid as an effective gravitational field, which obeys the Newton law. Moreover, the effective de Sitter spacetime behaviour near the metric signature transition may mimic various cosmological inflation scenarios, which may be visualized directly using an optical microscope. Thus, some features of the hypothetic microscopic theory of gravity are illustrated in the ferrofluid-based analogue models of inflation.