Browsing Department of Veterinary Medicine Research Works by Author "Ammayappan, Arun"
Now showing 1 - 2 of 2
Results Per Page
- ItemDetection of NP, N3 and N7 antibodies to avian influenza virus by indirect ELISA using yeast-expressed antigens(Springer Nature, 2009-10-07) Upadhyay, Chitra; Ammayappan, Arun; Vakharia, Vikram NAvian influenza viruses, belonging to the family Orthomyxoviridae, possess distinct combinations of hemagglutinin (H) and the neuraminidase (N) surface glycoproteins. Typing of both H and N antigens is essential for the epidemiological and surveillance studies. Therefore, it is important to find a rapid, sensitive, and specific method for their assay, and ELISA can be useful for this purpose, by using recombinant proteins. The nucleoprotein (NP) and truncated neuraminidase subtype 3 and 7 of avian influenza virus (AIV) were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and used to develop an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibody detection. The developed assays were evaluated with a panel of 64 chicken serum samples. The performance of NP-ELISA was compared with the commercially available ProFlok® AIV ELISA kit. The results showed comparable agreement and sensitivity between the two tests, indicating that NP-ELISA assay can be used for screening the influenza type A antibody in AIV infected birds. The N3 and N7- ELISAs also reacted specifically to their type specific sera and did not exhibit any cross-reaction with heterologous neuraminidase subtype specific sera. The study demonstrates the expression of the NP, N3, and N7 proteins of AIV in yeast (S. cerevisiae) and their application in developing an indirect ELISA for detecting NP, N3 and N7 antibodies from AIV-infected chicken sera. The described indirect ELISAs are rapid, sensitive, specific and can be used as promising tests during serological surveillance.
- ItemMolecular characterization of the Great Lakes viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) isolate from USA(Springer Nature, 2009-10-25) Ammayappan, Arun; Vakharia, Vikram NViral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is a highly contagious viral disease of fresh and saltwater fish worldwide. VHSV caused several large scale fish kills in the Great Lakes area and has been found in 28 different host species. The emergence of VHS in the Great Lakes began with the isolation of VHSV from a diseased muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) caught from Lake St. Clair in 2003. VHSV is a member of the genus Novirhabdovirus, within the family Rhabdoviridae. It has a linear single-stranded, negative-sense RNA genome of approximately 11 kbp, with six genes. VHSV replicates in the cytoplasm and produces six monocistronic mRNAs. The gene order of VHSV is 3'-N-P-M-G-NV-L-5'. This study describes molecular characterization of the Great Lakes VHSV strain (MI03GL), and its phylogenetic relationships with selected European and North American isolates. The complete genomic sequences of VHSV-MI03GL strain was determined from cloned cDNA of six overlapping fragments, obtained by RT-PCR amplification of genomic RNA. The complete genome sequence of MI03GL comprises 11,184 nucleotides (GenBank GQ385941) with the gene order of 3'-N-P-M-G-NV-L-5'. These genes are separated by conserved gene junctions, with di-nucleotide gene spacers. The first 4 nucleotides at the termini of the VHSV genome are complementary and identical to other novirhadoviruses genomic termini. Sequence homology and phylogenetic analysis show that the Great Lakes virus is closely related to the Japanese strains JF00Ehi1 (96%) and KRRV9822 (95%). Among other novirhabdoviruses, VHSV shares highest sequence homology (62%) with snakehead rhabdovirus. Phylogenetic tree obtained by comparing 48 glycoprotein gene sequences of different VHSV strains demonstrate that the Great Lakes VHSV is closely related to the North American and Japanese genotype IVa, but forms a distinct genotype IVb, which is clearly different from the three European genotypes. Molecular characterization of the Great Lakes isolate will be helpful in studying the pathogenesis of VHSV using a reverse genetics approach and developing efficient control strategies.