Browsing Maryland Institute for Applied Environmental Health Research Works by Author "Barr, Dana B."
Now showing 1 - 3 of 3
Results Per Page
- ItemEffect of Organic Diet Intervention on Pesticide Exposures in Young Children Living in Low-Income Urban and Agricultural Communities(2015) Bradman, Asa; Quiros-Alcala, Lesliam; Castorina, Rosemary; Aguilar Schall, Raul; Camacho, Jose; Barr, Dana B.Background: Recent organic diet intervention studies suggest that diet is a significant source of pesticide exposure in young children. These studies have focused on children living in suburban communities. Objectives: We aimed to determine whether consuming an organic diet reduced urinary pesticide metabolite concentrations in 40 Mexican-American children, 3–6 years of age, living in California urban and agricultural communities. Methods: In 2006, we collected urine samples over 16 consecutive days from children who consumed conventionally grown food for 4 days, organic food for 7 days, and then conventionally grown food for 5 days. We measured 23 metabolites, reflecting potential exposure to organophosphorous (OP), pyrethroid, and other pesticides used in homes and agriculture. We used linear mixed-effects models to evaluate the effects of diet on urinary metabolite concentrations. Results: For six metabolites with detection frequencies > 50%, adjusted geometric mean concentrations during the organic phase were generally lower for all children, and were significant for total dialkylphosphates (DAPs) and dimethyl DAPs (DMs; metabolites of OP insecticides) and 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, a herbicide), with reductions of 40%, 49%, and 25%, respectively (p < 0.01). Chemical-specific metabolite concentrations for several OP pesticides, pyrethroids, and herbicides were either infrequently detected and/or not significantly affected by diet. Concentrations for most of the frequently detected metabolites were generally higher in Salinas compared with Oakland children, with DMs and metolachlor at or near significance (p = 0.06 and 0.03, respectively). Conclusion: An organic diet was significantly associated with reduced urinary concentrations of nonspecific dimethyl OP insecticide metabolites and the herbicide 2,4-D in children. Additional research is needed to clarify the relative importance of dietary and non-dietary sources of pesticide exposures to young children.
- ItemOrganophosphorous pesticide breakdown products in house dust and children’s urine.(2012) Quiros-Alcala, Lesliam; Bradman, Asa; Smith, Kimberly; Weerasekera, Gayanga; Odetokun, Martins; Barr, Dana B.; Nishioka, M; Castorina, R; Hubbard, AE; Nicas, M; Hammond, SK; McKone, TE; Eskenazi, BHuman exposure to preformed dialkylphosphates (DAPs) in food or the environment may affect the reliability of DAP urinary metabolites as biomarkers of organophosphate (OP) pesticide exposure. We conducted a study to investigate the presence of DAPs in indoor residential environments and their association with children’s urinary DAP levels. We collected dust samples from homes in farmworker and urban communities (40 homes total, n=79 samples) and up to two urine samples from resident children ages 3-6 years. We measured six DAPs in all samples and eight DAP-devolving OP pesticides in a subset of dust samples (n=54). DAPs were detected in dust with diethylphosphate (DEP) being the most frequently detected (>=60%); detection frequencies for other DAPs were <=50%. DEP dust concentrations did not significantly differ between communities, nor were concentrations significantly correlated with concentrations of chlorpyrifos and diazinon, the most frequently detected diethyl-OP pesticides (Spearman r=0.41 to 0.38, P>0.05). Detection of DEP, chlorpyrifos, or diazinon, was not associated with DEP and/or DEPþdiethylthiophosphate detection in urine (Kappa coefficients=-0.33 to 0.16). Finally, estimated nondietary ingestion intake from DEP in dust was found to be <=5% of the dose calculated from DEP levels in urine, suggesting that ingestion of dust is not a significant source of DAPs in urine if they are excreted unchanged.
- ItemVariability of organophosphorous pesticide metabolite levels in spot and 24-hr urine samples collected from young children during 1 week.(2013-01) Bradman, Asa; Kogut, Katherine; Eisen, Ellen A.; Jewell, Nicholas; Quiros-Alcala, Lesliam; Castorina, Rosemary; Chevrier, Jonathan; Holland, Nina T.; Barr, Dana B.; Kavanagh-Baird, Gerry; Eskenazi, BrendaBackground: Dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites in spot urine samples are frequently used to characterize children’s exposures to organophosphorous (OP) pesticides. However, variable exposure and short biological half-lives of OP pesticides could result in highly variable measurements, leading to exposure misclassification. Objective: We examined within- and between-child variability in DAP metabolites in urine samples collected during 1 week. Methods: We collected spot urine samples over 7 consecutive days from 25 children (3–6 years of age). On two of the days, we collected 24-hr voids. We assessed the reproducibility of urinary DAP metabolite concentrations and evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of spot urine samples as predictors of high (top 20%) or elevated (top 40%) weekly average DAP metabolite concentrations. Results: Within-child variance exceeded between-child variance by a factor of two to eight, depending on metabolite grouping. Although total DAP concentrations in single spot urine samples were moderately to strongly associated with concentrations in same-day 24-hr samples (r ≈ 0.6–0.8, p < 0.01), concentrations in spot samples collected > 1 day apart and in 24-hr samples collected 3 days apart were weakly correlated (r ≈ –0.21 to 0.38). Single spot samples predicted high (top 20%) and elevated (top 40%) full-week average total DAP excretion with only moderate sensitivity (≈ 0.52 and ≈ 0.67, respectively) but relatively high specificity (≈ 0.88 and ≈ 0.78, respectively). Conclusions: The high variability we observed in children’s DAP metabolite concentrations suggests that single-day urine samples provide only a brief snapshot of exposure. Sensitivity analyses suggest that classification of cumulative OP exposure based on spot samples is prone to type 2 classification errors.