Browsing Health Policy & Management by Author "Chen, Xiao"
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- ItemDifferential associations of homelessness with emergencydepartment visits and hospitalizations by race, ethnicity, andgender(Wiley, 2022-05-20) Yue, Dahai; Pourat, Nadereh; Essien, Elsie A.; Chen, Xiao; Zhou, Weihao; O'Masta, BrennaObjective To investigate the differential associations of homelessness with emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations by race, ethnicity, and gender. Data Sources California Medicaid enrollment and claims. Study Design We identified beneficiaries experiencing homelessness (BEH) and those who did not (NBEH) using diagnosis and place of service codes and residential addresses. Outcomes include four ED visit measures and four hospitalization measures. We compared the use of these services by BEH to NBEH overall and by race, ethnicity, and gender groups in regression models controlling for covariates. Data Collection We used a sample of Medicaid beneficiaries who met eligibility criteria for a California Medicaid demonstration program in 2017 and 2018 but were not enrolled in the program. We identified 473,069 BEH, and the rest (1,948,422) were considered NBEH. We used the 2018 data for utilization analyses and most covariates. We constructed lagged measures of health conditions using 2017 data. Principal Findings We found that homelessness was significantly associated with 0.34 more ED visits (p < 0.01) and a higher likelihood of frequent ED visits (2.77 percentage points [pp], p < 0.01), any ED visits due to mental health conditions (0.79 pp, p < 0.01), and any ED visits due to substance use disorders (1.47 pp, p < 0.01). Experiencing homelessness was also significantly associated with 0.03 more hospitalizations (p < 0.01), a higher likelihood of frequent hospitalizations (0.68 pp, p < 0.01) and high frequent hospitalizations (0.28 pp, p < 0.01), and a longer length of stay (0.53 days, p < 0.01). We found a larger association for American Indian and Alaska Native, Black, Native Hawaii or Pacific Islander, and White populations than that for Asian and Hispanic populations. The associations are larger for males than females. Conclusions Our findings identified distinct utilization patterns by race, ethnicity, and gender. They indicated the need for developing race, ethnicity, and gender-specific strategies to reduce ED visits and hospitalizations of BEH.
- ItemThe impact of integrating medical assistants and community health workers on diabetes care management in community health centers(Springer Nature, 2018-11-20) Rodriguez, Hector P.; Friedberg, Mark W.; Vargas-Bustamante, Arturo; Chen, Xiao; Martinez, Ana E.; Roby, Dylan H.To compare the impact of implementing team-based diabetes care management involving community health workers (CHWs) vs. medical assistants (MA) in community health centers (CHCs) on diabetes care processes, intermediate outcomes, and patients’ experiences of chronic care. Patients in the CHW intervention arm had improved annual glycated hemoglobin testing (18.5%, p < 0.001), while patients in the MA intervention arm had improved low-density lipoprotein cholesterol control (8.4%, p < 0.05) and reported better chronic care experiences over time (β=7.5, p < 0.001). Except for chronic care experiences (p < 0.05) for patients in the MA intervention group, difference-in-difference estimates were not statistically significant because control group patients also improved over time. Some diabetes care processes improved significantly more for control group patients than intervention group patients. Key informant interviews revealed that immediate patient care issues sometimes crowded out diabetes care management activities, especially for MAs. Diabetes care improved in CHCs integrating CHWs and MAs onto primary care teams, but the improvements were no different than improvements observed among matched control group patients. Greater improvement using CHW and MA team-based approaches may be possible if practice leaders minimize use of these personnel to cover shortages that often arise in busy primary care practices.
- ItemReductions in under-5 mortality and public health improvements of the China Healthy Cities (Counties) initiative: a nationwide quasiexperimental study(BMJ, 2022-03-09) Yue, Dahai; Chen, Xiao; Zhu, Yuhui; Macinko, James; Meng, QingyueIntroduction The China Healthy Cities (Counties) public health initiative has been at the forefront of China’s efforts to counteract the growing challenges in the urban environment since the 1990s. It primarily focuses on improving the urban living environment. However, the nationwide health impacts of the initiative remain unexplored. Methods We constructed nationwide county-level and city-level panel data from 1996 to 2012 using data on under-5 mortality rates (U5MR), the list of China healthy cities and counties and socioeconomic factors. We used a two-step staggered difference-in-differences approach that exploits variations in the timing of achieving the title of China Healthy City/County. Subgroup analyses by region were performed. Results We included 707 cities in the China Healthy Cities study, and 1631 counties in the China Healthy Counties study. Our results indicate substantial and significant reductions in U5MR associated with the public health initiative in China. The association varies across regions with different socioeconomic statuses. China Healthy Cities were significantly associated with a reduction of 0.7/1000 (95% CI −1.2 to −0.2) in under-5 mortality 5 years after cities gained the title and a decrease of 1.4/1000 (95% CI −2.2 to −0.6) 10 years afterward. Cities from western China saw the largest statistically significant gains with 3.2/1000 and 7.2/1000 reductions in child mortality after 5 and 10 years, respectively. China Healthy Counties were also associated with significant reductions in under-5 mortality 8 years after achieving the title; it was associated with 2.6/1000 reductions in under-5 mortality nationwide and 3.8/1000 reductions in eastern China. Our results are robust to heterogeneous treatment effects across cities/counties over time and various model specifications. Conclusion Our results suggest significant reductions in under-5 mortality associated with this public health intervention focusing on living environment conditions. Future research could explore differential effects across regions and clarify the underlying causal mechanisms.