Hepatic Phase I and II Biotransformation Kinetics in Fishes: A Comparative Study
Gonzalez, Jaime Fernando
Kane, Andrew S
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Eight finfish species were selected to test the similarities and dissimilarities on their phase I and II biotransformation capabilities using microsomal and cytosolic fractions of the liver. This research had three main objectives: 1) a comparison among the kinetics of the 8 species using model substrates, 2) farm-raised and laboratory-acclimated specimens of channel catfish, rainbow trout and tilapia were compared to determine similarities and differences in the biotransformation reactions, and 3) the same latter three species were tested to compare in vitro hepatic metabolism of albendazole, a drug that undergoes metabolic biotransformation mainly through hepatic phase I reactions. The comparison among the 8 finfish species showed that some of them had higher biotransformation capabilities than others. For most of the seven phase I- II reactions that were tested; rainbow trout, tilapia, channel catfish and Atlantic salmon had higher enzymatic efficiencies than those showed by of striped bass, hybrid striped bass and bluegill. Largemouth bass shared some enzymatic capabilities with one group or the other. The comparison between lab-acclimated and farm-raised specimens of tilapia, channel catfish and rainbow trout did not show biologically significant differences among the two groups of fish for the 3 species. All the values found for the kinetics of the reactions were within the ranges of the constitutive expression that has been reported for them and far below those found in other works when inducers (e.g. pollutants) of enzymatic reactions have been used. The phase I-mediated hepatic sulfoxidation of albendazole in tilapia, channel catfish and rainbow trout showed significant differences in Vmax and Km values among the three species. However, the catalytic efficacies of the reaction (Vmax/Km) in the 3 species transforming the parent compound were similar. In addition, albendazole induced EROD activity (2.6 fold) in in vivo dosed channel catfish. The results found in the present study showed that the catalytic efficiency of hepatic phase I-II enzymatic reactions varied among finfish species. Some of them may be categorized as "more efficient metabolizers" than others. This may have important implications in drug metabolism and residue depletion patterns.