Coping, social support, biculturalism, and religious coping as moderators of the relationship between occupational stress and depressive affect among Hispanic psychologists
Maldonado, Leslie E.
Lent, Robert W
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This study investigated the degree to which coping behaviors, social support, biculturalism, and positive religious coping moderate the relationship between occupational stress and depressive affect. Research survey packets were sent to doctoral level Latino/a counseling and clinical psychologists with residence in the U.S., members of national or state psychological associations. Usable surveys were received from 580 participants for an overall return rate of 50%. Participants responded to the following instruments: Mental Health Professionals Stress Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale short form, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Job Content Questionnaire, Brief COPE, Brief RCOPE (religious coping), and the Abbreviated Multidimensional Acculturation Scale for Latinos short form. Analyses indicated that 13% of the variance in depressive affect is predicted by occupational stress. Coping strategies, positive religious coping, social support, and biculturalism collectively explained 13% of the variance in depressive affect. Specifically, coworker support (B = -.21, p < .001), total non-work support (B = -.20, p < .001), biculturalism (B = -.12, p < .01), and positive religious coping (B = .10, p < .05) made a statistically significant contribution to the variance in depressive affect scores. Analyses showed that interactions terms between occupational stress and coping strategies, work and non-work social support, biculturalism, and positive religious coping did not moderate the relationship between occupational stress and depressive affect. No increments in variance attributed to the product terms above and beyond main effects were found. Results revealed significant main effects for the predictor variables, except for positive religious coping, beyond occupational stress. Coping behaviors, work and non-work social support, and biculturalism were negatively associated with depressive affect regardless of the level of occupational stress. Results of the present study suggested that on average participants employed more problem-focused coping strategies than emotional-focused coping strategies. Analysis of participants' self-reported coping strategies indicated a wide variety of coping responses. The most frequently mentioned coping strategies were; social support, planning and active problem solving, work support, recreational or disengagement activities, and sports and exercise. Among the least endorsed or mentioned coping strategies were; acceptance, humor, and personal psychotherapy or counseling.