ISOTHERMAL MECHANICAL AND THERMO-MECHANICAL DURABILITY CHARACTERIZATION OF SELECTED PB-FREE SOLDERS
MetadataShow full item record
Due to the hazards of Pb in the environment and its effect on humans and marketing competition from Japanese electronics manufacturers, the conversion to Pb-free solders in the electronics industry appears imminent. As major mechanical, thermal, and electrical interconnects between the component and the PWB, solder joints are crucial for the reliability of the most electronic packages. There is an urgent need for constitutive properties, mechanical durability and thermo-mechanical durability of Pb-free solders. A partitioned constitutive model consisting of elastic, plastic, primary creep and secondary creep models is obtained for the Sn3.9Ag0.6Cu solder and the baseline Sn37Pb solder from comprehensive monotonic and creep tests conducted on Thermo-Mechanical-Microscale (TMM) setup. The comparison between two solders shows that Sn3.9Ag0.6Cu has much better creep resistance than Sn37Pb at the low and medium stresses. The isothermal mechanical durability of three NEMI recommended Pb-free solders, Sn3.9Ag0.6Cu, Sn3.5Ag, Sn0.7Cu, is tested on the TMM setup under low creep and high creep test conditions. The damage propagation rate is also analyzed from the test data. The generic Energy-Partitioning (E-P) durability model is obtained for three Pb-free solders by using the incremental analytic model developed for TMM tests. The scatter of the test results from the prediction by these E-P durability model constants is small. The thermo-mechanical durability of the Pb-free Sn3.8Ag0.7Cu solder is investigated by a systematic approach combining comprehensive thermal cycling tests and finite element modeling. The effects of mixed solder systems, device types, and underfill are addressed in the tests. Thermal cycling results show that Sn3.8Ag0.7Cu marginally outperforms SnPb for four different components under the studied test condition. The extensive detailed three-dimensional viscoplastic FE stress and damage analysis is conducted for five different thermal cycling tests of both Sn3.8Ag0.7Cu and Sn37Pb solders. Power law thermo-mechanical durability models of both Sn3.8Ag0.7Cu and Sn3Pb are obtained from thermal cycling test data and stress and damage analysis. The energy-partitioning durability models of two solders are also obtained. It is found that the slopes of the plastic and creep curves in the E-P damage model of Pb-free solders for thermal cycling are steeper than those for mechanical cycling and those of Sn37Pb solders.