Counseling Self-Efficacy and the Relational Efficacy Model
Morrison, Marylee Ashley
Lent, Robert W
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Relation-inferred self-efficacy (RISE), a relatively new concept, is defined as a target individual’s beliefs about how an observer, often a relationship partner, perceives the target’s ability to perform certain actions successfully. Along with self-efficacy (i.e., one’s beliefs about his or her own ability) and other-efficacy (i.e., one’s beliefs about his or her partner’s ability), RISE makes up a three part system of interrelated efficacy beliefs known as the relational efficacy model (Lent & Lopez, 2002). Previous research has shown this model to be helpful in understanding how relational dyads, including coach-athlete, advisor-advisee, and romantic partners, contribute to the development of self-efficacy beliefs. The clinical supervision dyad (i.e., supervisor-supervisee), is another context in which relational efficacy beliefs may play an important role. This study investigated the relationship between counseling self-efficacy, RISE, and other-efficacy within the context of clinical supervision. Specifically, it examined whether supervisee perceptions about how their supervisor sees their counseling ability (RISE) related to how supervisees see their own counseling ability (counseling self-efficacy), and what moderates this relationship. The study also sought to discover the degree to which RISE mediated the relationship between supervisor working alliance and counseling self-efficacy. Data were collected from 240 graduate students who were currently enrolled in counseling related fields, working with at least one client, and receiving regular supervision. Results demonstrated that years of experience and RISE predicted counseling self-efficacy and that the relationship between RISE and counseling self-efficacy was, as expected, moderated by other-efficacy. Contrary to expectations, however, counseling experience and level of client difficulty did not moderate the relationship between RISE and counseling self-efficacy. These findings suggest that the relationship between RISE and counseling self-efficacy was stronger when supervisees saw their supervisors as capable therapists. Furthermore, RISE was found to fully mediate the relationship between supervisor working alliance and counseling self-efficacy. Future research directions and implications for training and supervision are discussed.