INVESTIGATIONS INTO MECHANISMS UNDERLYING EXTREME WAVE FORMATIONS AND COMPUTATIONALLY INTENSIVE SIMULATIONS
Moitra, Ayan Moitra
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Various mechanisms have been proposed to explain extreme waves or rogue waves in an oceanic environment including directional focusing, dispersive focusing, wave-current interaction, and nonlinear modulational instability. The Benjamin-Feir instability (nonlinear modulational instability), however, is considered to be one of the primary mechanisms for rogue-wave occurrence. The nonlinear Schrodinger equation is a well-established approximate model based on the same assumptions as required for the derivation of the Benjamin-Feir theory. Solutions of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation, including new rogue-wave type solutions are presented in the author's dissertation work. The solutions are obtained by using a predictive eigenvalue map based predictor-corrector procedure developed by the author. Features of the predictive map are explored and the influences of certain parameter variations are investigated. The solutions are rescaled to match the length scales of waves generated in a wave tank. Based on the information provided by the map and the details of physical scaling, a framework is developed that can serve as a basis for experimental investigations into a variety of extreme waves as well localizations in wave fields. To derive further fundamental insights into the complexity of extreme wave conditions, Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations are carried out on an advanced Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) based parallel computational platform. Free surface gravity wave simulations have successfully characterized water-wave dispersion in the SPH model while demonstrating extreme energy focusing and wave growth in both linear and nonlinear regimes. A virtual wave tank is simulated wherein wave motions can be excited from either side. Focusing of several wave trains and isolated waves has been simulated. With properly chosen parameters, dispersion effects are observed causing a chirped wave train to focus and exhibit growth. By using the insights derived from the study of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation, modulational instability or self-focusing has been induced in a numerical wave tank and studied through several numerical simulations. Due to the inherent dissipative nature of SPH models, simulating persistent progressive waves can be problematic. This issue has been addressed and an observation-based solution has been provided. The efficacy of SPH in modeling wave focusing can be critical to further our understanding and predicting extreme wave phenomena through simulations. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying extreme energy localization phenomena can help facilitate energy harnessing and serve as a basis to predict and mitigate the impact of energy focusing.