Slot Film Cooling: A Comprehensive Experimental Characterization
Raffan Montoya, Fernando
Marshall, Andre W
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When components of a propulsion system are exposed to elevated flow temperatures there is a risk for catastrophic failure if the components are not properly protected from the thermal loads. Among several strategies, slot film cooling is one of the most commonly used, yet poorly understood active cooling techniques. Tangential injection of a relatively cool fluid layer protects the surface(s) in question, but the turbulent mixing between the hot mainstream and cooler film along with the presence of the wall presents an inherently complex problem where kinematics, thermal transport and multimodal heat transfer are coupled. Furthermore, new propulsion designs rely heavily on CFD analysis to verify their viability. These CFD models require validation of their results, and the current literature does not provide a comprehensive data set for film cooling that meets all the demands for proper validation, namely a comprehensive (kinematic, thermal and boundary condition data) data set obtained over a wide range of conditions. This body of work aims at solving the fundamental issue of validation by providing high quality comprehensive film cooling data (kinematics, thermal mixing, heat transfer). 3 distinct velocity ratios (VR=uc/u∞) are examined corresponding to wall-wake (VR~0.5), min-shear (VR ~ 1.0), and wall-jet (VR~2.0) type flows at injection, while the temperature ratio TR= T∞/Tc is approximately 1.5 for all cases. Turbulence intensities at injection are 2-4% for the mainstream (urms/u∞, vrms/u∞,), and on the order of 8-10% for the coolant (urms/uc, vrms/uc,). A special emphasis is placed on inlet characterization, since inlet data in the literature is often incomplete or is of relatively low quality for CFD development. The data reveals that min-shear injection provides the best performance, followed by the wall-jet. The wall-wake case is comparably poor in performance. The comprehensive data suggests that this relative performance is due to the mixing strength of each case, as well as the location of regions of strong mixing with respect to the wall. Kinematic and thermal data show that strong mixing occurs in the wall-jet away from the wall (y/s>1), while strong mixing in the wall-wake occurs much closer to the wall (y/s<1). Min-shear cases exhibit noticeably weaker mixing confined to about y/s=1. Additionally to these general observations, the experimental data obtained in this work is analyzed to reveal scaling laws for the inlets, near-wall scaling, detecting and characterizing coherent structures in the flow as well as to provide data reduction strategies for comparison to CFD models (RANS and LES).