INCORPORATING IDEAS OF DISPLACEMENT AND DIFFUSION OF BENEFITS INTO EVALUATIONS OF COUNTERTERRORISM POLICY
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Criminologists and terrorism specialists alike have conducted research on the deterrent effect of policies; however, to date, only criminologists have thoroughly examined the associated displacement of crime and diffusion of benefits. Using data from the Eco-Incidents Database, this study first examines the deterrent effect of government efforts targeting animal rights and environmental terrorism over several years. Next, it extends this application by examining non-terrorist actions by both terrorist groups and non-terrorist groups to see if deterrent actions have any unintended consequences. Results show no evidence of displacement, but rather that several government actions evidenced a diffusion of benefits. If anti-terrorist laws reduce other types of crime, particularly by non-terrorists, then this has policy implications for law enforcement strategies.