Chemical compositions, antioxidant and antiproliferative properties of wheat
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To promote its use in nutraceutical and functional ingredients, different growing environments, genotypes, and processing fractions of soft wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were investigated for their chemical compositions and biological activities. The first study of this research investigated phytochemicals composition and antiproliferative activities of ten wheat bran samples. It was found that the individual wheat bran samples significantly differed in their chemical and biological properties. The second part of this research further studied influences of genotype (G), growing environment (E), and their interaction (G × E) on the phytochemical compositions and antioxidant properties of the same ten wheat bran cultivars. The results indicated that larger variability for health beneficial components and antioxidant properties of soft winter wheat bran were attributed more by E than G and G ×E. The third study was to investigate phytochemical profiles and antiproliferative properties of bread processing fractions (dough, crumb, and upper crust) from refined and whole-wheat flours. The results showed that baking reduced the concentrations of carotenoids and tocopherols, however, the upper crust fraction had significant higher levels of phenolic acids than in the dough and crumb fractions, suggesting that total phenolic acids content might not decrease during baking breads made from refined and whole wheat flours.