Highly Efficient SiC Based Onboard Chargers for Plug-in Electric Vehicles
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Grid-enabled plug-in electrified vehicles (PEVs) are deemed as one of the most sustainable solutions to profoundly reduce both oil consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. One of the most important realities, which will facilitate the adoption of PEVs is the method by which these vehicles will be charged. This dissertation focuses on the research of highly efficient onboard charging solutions for next generation PEVs. This dissertation designs a two-stage onboard battery charger to charge a 360 V lithium-ion battery pack. An interleaved boost topology is employed in the first stage for power factor correction (PFC) and to reduce total harmonic distortion (THD). In the second stage, a full bridge inductor-inductor-capacitor (LLC) multi-resonant converter is adopted for galvanic isolation and dc/dc conversion. Design considerations focusing on reducing the charger volume, and optimizing the conversion efficiency over the wide battery pack voltage range are investigated. The designed 1 kW Silicon based charger prototype is able to charge the battery with an output voltage range of 320 V to 420 V from 110 V, 60 Hz single-phase grid. Unity power factor, low THD, and high peak conversion efficiency have been demonstrated experimentally. This dissertation proposes a new technique to track the maximum efficiency point of LLC converter over a wide battery state-of-charge range. With the proposed variable dc link control approach, dc link voltage follows the battery pack voltage. The operating point of the LLC converter is always constrained to the proximity of the primary resonant frequency, so that the circulating losses and the turning off losses are minimized. The proposed variable dc link voltage methodology, demonstrates efficiency improvement across the wide state-of-charge range. An efficiency improvement of 2.1% at the heaviest load condition and 9.1% at the lightest load condition for LLC conversion stage are demonstrated experimentally. This dissertation proposes a novel PEV charger based on single-ended primary-inductor converter (SEPIC) and the maximum efficiency point tracking technique of an LLC converter. The proposed charger architecture demonstrates attracting features such as (1) compatible with universal grid inputs; (2) able to charge the fully depleted battery pack; (3) pulse width modulation and simplified control algorithm; and (4) the advantages of Silicon Carbide MOSFETs can be fully manifested. A 3.3 kW all Silicon Carbide based PEV charger prototype is designed to validate the proposed idea.