Identity and philanthropy: Designing a survey instrument to operationalize lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer alumni giving
Garvey, Jason C.
Drezner, Noah D.
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This study investigated philanthropic giving to higher education among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) alumni. The primary purpose was to create a multi-institutional survey instrument that operationalizes philanthropic involvement and motivation among LGBTQ alumni. Additional objectives included creating factors and items specific to philanthropic involvement and motivations of LGBTQ alumni, and ensuring validity and reliability of this instrument. I used a variety of analyses to create the instrument and to ensure validity and reliability of constructs within the survey. I followed DeVellis' (2003) model for scale development, utilizing his eight steps to create and validate the survey for LGBTQ alumni giving. Before administration, expert reviewers checked for both content and construct validity, providing feedback regarding both the overall functioning of the survey and specific critiques within items and factors. Surveying LGBTQ alumni from one institution, my sample yield was 21.89% (197 of approximately 900 potential participants). Following data collection, I conducted three different analyses to create a valid, reliable, and more parsimonious survey instrument: social desirability, construct validity, and principal components analysis (PCA). The final instrument yielded five empirically and conceptually valid factors across 22 items. Results from all analyses and validations led to the conclusion that the final instrument and accompanying factors are useable in measuring LGBTQ alumni giving.