Digital Multimedia Forensics and Anti-Forensics
Stamm, Matthew Christopher
Liu, K. J. Ray
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As the use of digital multimedia content such as images and video has increased, so has the means and the incentive to create digital forgeries. Presently, powerful editing software allows forgers to create perceptually convincing digital forgeries. Accordingly, there is a great need for techniques capable of authenticating digital multimedia content. In response to this, researchers have begun developing digital forensic techniques capable of identifying digital forgeries. These forensic techniques operate by detecting imperceptible traces left by editing operations in digital multimedia content. In this dissertation, we propose several new digital forensic techniques to detect evidence of editing in digital multimedia content. We begin by identifying the fingerprints left by pixel value mappings and show how these can be used to detect the use of contrast enhancement in images. We use these fingerprints to perform a number of additional forensic tasks such as identifying cut-and-paste forgeries, detecting the addition of noise to previously JPEG compressed images, and estimating the contrast enhancement mapping used to alter an image. Additionally, we consider the problem of multimedia security from the forger's point of view. We demonstrate that an intelligent forger can design anti-forensic operations to hide editing fingerprints and fool forensic techniques. We propose an anti-forensic technique to remove compression fingerprints from digital images and show that this technique can be used to fool several state-of-the-art forensic algorithms. We examine the problem of detecting frame deletion in digital video and develop both a technique to detect frame deletion and an anti-forensic technique to hide frame deletion fingerprints. We show that this anti-forensic operation leaves behind fingerprints of its own and propose a technique to detect the use of frame deletion anti-forensics. The ability of a forensic investigator to detect both editing and the use of anti-forensics results in a dynamic interplay between the forger and forensic investigator. We use develop a game theoretic framework to analyze this interplay and identify the set of actions that each party will rationally choose. Additionally, we show that anti-forensics can be used protect against reverse engineering. To demonstrate this, we propose an anti-forensic module that can be integrated into digital cameras to protect color interpolation methods.