A UNIFIED MODEL OF MOTIVATED REASONING: THE INTERACTIVE ROLE OF MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS, SITUATIONAL AFFORDANCES, AND COGNITIVE RESOURCES IN HUMAN JUDGMENT.
Kruglanski, Arie W
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Motivated biases are considered under an integrative theoretical framework which specifies the interplay between motivation, situational affordances, and cognitive resources. According to this framework, motivation influences the cognitive strategies taken in a given situation. Then, cognitive resources are channeled to the appropriate set of cognitive processes suggested by the dominant motivation. The presence of cognitive resources allows information processing to be directed at either reaching an accurate decision, or overcoming reality constraints impeding one from reaching a desirable judgment. In the absence of cognitive resources the dominant motivation, whether it be accuracy or directional motivation, has a lesser impact when reaching the desired judgment is made difficult. In such case, salient situational cues and ambiguous information may determine judgments to a greater degree irrespective of the motivational relevance of those cues. Two studies supported the present model in two unrelated contexts using different operationalizations of the major constructs.