## Quantum Switching Networks: Unicast and Multicast

##### Abstract

Quantum switching networks are analogs of classical switching networks in which classical switches are replaced by quantum switches. These networks are used to switch quantum data among a set of quantum sources and receivers. They can also be used to efficiently switch classical data, and help overcome some limitations of classical switching networks by utilizing the unique properties of quantum information systems, such as superposition and parallelism. In this thesis, we design several such networks which can be broadly put in the following three categories:
1. <italic>Quantum unicast networks:</italic> We give the design of quantum Baseline network (QBN) which is a self-routing and unicast quantum packet switch that uses the Baseline topology. The classical version of the network blocks packets internally even when there are no output contentions and each input packet is addressed to a different output. The QBN uses the principles of quantum superposition and parallelism to overcome such blocking. Also, for assignments that have multiple input packets addressed to an output, this network creates a quantum superposition of all these packets on that output, ensuring that all packets have non-zero probabilities of being observed on that output.
2. <italic>Quantum concentrators:</italic> We introduce a new network called quantum concentrator, which is a key component of our quantum multicasting network design. This concentrator is also an n × n quantum switching network, to be denoted by n-QC, and which, for any m, 1 ≤ m ≤ n, routes arbitrary quantum states on any m of its inputs to its top m outputs. This network uses O(n log n) quantum gates, and has a gate level depth of O(log<super>2</super> n). We also give several variations of this network, the main ones being order-preserving and priority quantum concentrators.
3. <italic> Quantum multicast networks:</italic> We first design a quantum multicasting network, called a generalized quantum connector (GQC) which can be used to multicast quantum information from n input sources to n outputs. Since general quantum states cannot be copied due to the no-cloning theorem, this network actually multicasts superposed classical information packets, contained in a finite number of qubits at each input. Copying needed for such multicasting is obtained by Wootters and Zurek's quantum copying machines or controlled-not gates. This n-input and n-output (n × n) network, to be denoted by n-GQC, is recursively constructed using n/2-GQCs and uses O(n log<super>2</super>n) quantum gates. The time complexity of this network in terms of gate level depth is O(log<super>3</super>n). We also give two variations of this network which improve its behavior when routing multicast assignments that have multiple input packets contending for same outputs.

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