FORCE FED MICROCHANNEL HIGH HEAT FLUX COOLING UTILIZING MICROGROOVED SURFACES
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Among other applications, the increase in power density of advanced electronic components has created a need for high heat flux cooling. Future processors have been anticipated to exceed the current barrier of 1000 W/cm<super>2</super>, while the working temperature of such systems is expected to remain more or less the same. Currently, the well known cooling technologies have shown little promise of meeting these demands. This dissertation investigated an innovative cooling technology, referred to as force-fed heat transfer. Force-fed microchannel heat sinks (FFMHS) utilize certain enhanced microgrooved surfaces and advanced flow distribution manifolds, which create a system of short microchannels running in parallel. For a single-phase FFMHS, a numerical model was incorporated in a multi-objective optimization algorithm, and the optimum parameters that generate the maximum heat transfer coefficients with minimum pumping power were identified. Similar multi-objective optimization procedures were applied to Traditional Microchannel Heat Sinks (TMHS) and Jet Impingement Heat Sinks (JIHS). The comparison study at optimum designs indicates that for a 1 x 1 cm<super>2</super> base heat sink area, heat transfer coefficients of FFMHS can be 72% higher than TMHS and 306% higher than JIHS at same pumping power. For two-phase FFMHS, three different heat sink designs incorporating microgrooved surfaces with microchannel widths between 21 μm and 60 μm were tested experimentally using R-245fa, a dielectric fluid. It was demonstrated that FFMHS can cool higher heat fluxes with lower pumping power values when compared to conventional methods. The flow and heat transfer characteristics in two-phase mode were evaluated using a visualization test setup. It was found that at low hydraulic diameter and low mass flux, the dominant heat transfer mechanism is dynamic rapid bubble expansion leading to an elongated bubble flow regime. For high heat-flux, as well as combination of high heat flux and high hydraulic diameters, the flow regimes resemble the flow characteristics observed in conventional tubes. The present research is the first of its kind to develop a better understanding of single-phase and phase-change heat transfer in FFMHS through flow visualization, numerical and experimental modeling of the phenomena, and multi-objective optimization of the heat sink.