Physics Theses and Dissertations
http://hdl.handle.net/1903/2800
Wed, 20 Sep 2017 20:13:33 GMT2017-09-20T20:13:33ZLeft-right symmetric model and its TeV-scale phenomenology
http://hdl.handle.net/1903/20007
Left-right symmetric model and its TeV-scale phenomenology
Lee, Chang Hun
The Standard Model of particle physics is a chiral theory with a broken parity symmetry, and the left-right symmetric model is an extension of the SM with the parity symmetry restored at high energies. Its extended particle content allows us not only to find the solution to the parity problem of the SM but also to solve the problem of understanding the neutrino masses via the seesaw mechanism. If the scale of parity restoration is in the few TeV range, we can expect new physics signals that are not present in the Standard Model in planned future experiments. We investigate the TeV-scale phenomenology of the various classes of left-right symmetric models, focusing on the charged lepton flavour violation, neutrinoless double beta decay, electric dipole moments of charged leptons, and leptogenesis.
Sun, 01 Jan 2017 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/1903/200072017-01-01T00:00:00ZA NATURAL EXTENSION OF STANDARD WARPED HIGHER-DIMENSIONAL COMPACTIFICATIONS: THEORY AND PHENOMENOLOGY
http://hdl.handle.net/1903/20000
A NATURAL EXTENSION OF STANDARD WARPED HIGHER-DIMENSIONAL COMPACTIFICATIONS: THEORY AND PHENOMENOLOGY
Hong, Sungwoo
Warped higher-dimensional compactifications with ``bulk'' standard model, or their AdS/CFT dual as the purely 4D scenario of Higgs compositeness and partial compositeness, offer an elegant approach to resolving the electroweak hierarchy problem as well as the origins of flavor structure. However, low-energy electroweak/flavor/CP constraints and the absence of non-standard physics at LHC Run 1 suggest that a ``little hierarchy problem'' remains, and that the new physics underlying naturalness may lie out of LHC reach. Assuming this to be the case, we show that there is a simple and natural extension of the minimal warped model in the Randall-Sundrum framework, in which matter, gauge and gravitational fields propagate modestly different degrees into the IR of the warped dimension, resulting in rich and striking consequences for the LHC (and beyond).
The LHC-accessible part of the new physics is AdS/CFT dual to the mechanism of ``vectorlike confinement'', with TeV-scale Kaluza-Klein excitations of the gauge and gravitational fields dual to spin-0,1,2 composites. Unlike the minimal warped model, these low-lying excitations have predominantly flavor-blind and flavor/CP-safe interactions with the standard model. In addition, the usual leading decay modes of the lightest KK gauge bosons into top and Higgs bosons are suppressed. This effect permits erstwhile subdominant channels to become significant. These include flavor-universal decays to all pairs of SM fermions, and a novel channel — decay to a radion and a SM gauge boson, followed by radion decay to a pair of SM gauge bosons. We present a detailed phenomenological study of the latter cascade decay processes.
Remarkably, this scenario also predicts small deviations from flavor-blindness originating from virtual effects of Higgs/top compositeness at ∼ O(10) TeV, with subdominant resonance decays into a pair of Higgs/top-rich final states, giving the LHC an early ``preview'' of the nature of the resolution of the hierarchy problem. Discoveries of this type at LHC Run 2 would thereby anticipate (and set a target for) even more explicit explorations of Higgs compositeness at a 100 TeV collider, or for next-generation flavor tests.
Sun, 01 Jan 2017 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/1903/200002017-01-01T00:00:00ZHYDRODYNAMIC AND ELECTRODYNAMIC IMPLICATIONS OF OPTICAL FEMTOSECOND FILAMENTATION
http://hdl.handle.net/1903/19973
HYDRODYNAMIC AND ELECTRODYNAMIC IMPLICATIONS OF OPTICAL FEMTOSECOND FILAMENTATION
Jhajj, Nihal
The propagation of a high peak power femtosecond laser pulse through a dielectric medium results in filamentation, a strongly nonlinear regime characterized by a narrow, high intensity core surrounded by a lower intensity energy “reservoir” region. The structure can propagate over many core diameter-based Rayleigh ranges.
When a pulse of sufficiently high power propagates through a medium, the medium response creates an intensity dependent lens, and the pulse begins to focus in a runaway process known as optical collapse. Collapse is invariably mitigated by an arrest mechanism, which becomes relevant as the pulse becomes increasingly intense. In air, collapse is arrested through plasma refraction when the pulse becomes intense enough to ionize the medium. Following arrest, the pulse begins to “filament” or self-guide. In gaseous media, energy deposited in the wake of filamentation eventually thermalizes prompting a neutral gas hydrodynamic response. The gas responds to a sudden localized pressure spike by launching a single cycle acoustic wave, leaving behind a heated, low density channel which gradually dissipates through thermal diffusion.
This dissertation presents a fundamental advance in the theory of optical collapse arrest, which is how a pulse transitions from the optical collapse regime to the filamentation regime. We provide experimental evidence, supported by theory and numerical simulation that pulses undergoing collapse arrest in air generate spatiotemporal optical vortices (STOVs), a new and previously unobserved type of optical vortex with phase and energy circulation in a spatiotemporal plane. We argue that STOV generation is universal to filamentation, applicable to all collapsing beams, independent of the initial conditions of the pulse or the details of the collapse arrest mechanism. Once formed, STOVs are essential for mediating intrapulse energy flows.
We also study the hydrodynamic response following filamentation, with the intent of engineering the response to construct a variety of neutral gas waveguides. In a proof-of-concept experiment, we demonstrate that a transverse array of filamenting pulses can be used to inscribe two distinct types of waveguides into the air: acoustic and thermal waveguides. These waveguides can be used to guide very high average power laser beams or as remote atmospheric collection lenses.
Sun, 01 Jan 2017 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/1903/199732017-01-01T00:00:00ZDYNAMICS OF LARGE SYSTEMS OF NONLINEARLY EVOLVING UNITS
http://hdl.handle.net/1903/19944
DYNAMICS OF LARGE SYSTEMS OF NONLINEARLY EVOLVING UNITS
Lu, Zhixin
The dynamics of large systems of many nonlinearly evolving units is a general research area that has great importance for many areas in science and technology, including biology, computation by artificial neural networks, statistical mechanics, flocking in animal groups, the dynamics of coupled neurons in the brain, and many others. While universal principles and techniques are largely lacking in this broad
area of research, there is still one particular phenomenon that seems to be broadly applicable. In particular, this is the idea of emergence, by which is meant macroscopic behaviors that “emerge” from a large system of many “smaller or simpler entities such that ... large entities” [i.e., macroscopic behaviors] arise which “exhibit properties the smaller/simpler entities do not exhibit.” [1]. In this thesis we investigate mechanisms and manifestations of emergence in four dynamical systems consisting many nonlinearly evolving units. These four systems are as follows.
(a) We first study the motion of a large ensemble of many noninteracting particles in a slowly changing Hamiltonian system that undergoes a separatrix crossing. In such systems, we find that separatrix-crossing induces a counterintuitive effect. Specifically, numerical simulation of two sets of densely sprinkled initial conditions on two energy curves appears to suggest that the two energy curves, one originally enclosing the other, seemingly interchange their positions. This, however, is topologically forbidden. We resolve this paradox by introducing a numerical simulation method we call “robust” and study its consequences.
(b) We next study the collective dynamics of oscillatory pacemaker neurons in Suprachiasmatic Nucleus (SCN), which, through synchrony, govern the circadian rhythm of mammals. We start from a high-dimensional description of the many coupled oscillatory neuronal units within the SCN. This description is based on a forced Kuramoto model. We then reduce the system dimensionality by using the Ott Antonsen Ansatz and obtain a low-dimensional macroscopic description. Using this reduced macroscopic system, we explain the east-west asymmetry of jet-lag recovery and discus the consequences of our findings.
(c) Thirdly, we study neuron firing in integrate-and-fire neural networks. We build a discrete-state/discrete-time model with both excitatory and inhibitory neurons and find a phase transition between avalanching dynamics and ceaseless firing dynamics. Power-law firing avalanche size/duration distributions are observed at critical parameter values. Furthermore, in this critical regime we find the same power law exponents as those observed from experiments and previous, more restricted, simulation studies. We also employ a mean-field method and show that inhibitory neurons in this system promote robustness of the criticality (i.e., an enhanced range of system parameter where power-law avalanche statistics applies).
(d) Lastly, we study the dynamics of “reservoir computing networks” (RCN’s), which is a recurrent neural network (RNN) scheme for machine learning. The ad- vantage of RCN’s over traditional RNN’s is that the training is done only on the output layer, usually via a simple least-square method. We show that RCN’s are very effective for inferring unmeasured state variables of dynamical systems whose system state is only partially measured. Using the examples of the Lorenz system and the Rossler system we demonstrate the potential of an RCN to perform as an universal model-free “observer”.
Sun, 01 Jan 2017 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/1903/199442017-01-01T00:00:00Z