Mathematics Theses and Dissertationshttp://hdl.handle.net/1903/27932016-07-09T21:23:42Z2016-07-09T21:23:42ZRegular homomorphisms of minimal setsShoenfeld, Peterhttp://hdl.handle.net/1903/184782016-07-09T02:31:00Z1974-01-01T00:00:00ZRegular homomorphisms of minimal sets
Shoenfeld, Peter
The classification of minimal sets is a central theme in
abstract topological dynamics. Recently this work has been
strengthened and extended by consideration of homomorphisms.
Background material is presented in Chapter I. Given a
flow on a compact Hausdorff space, the action extends naturally
to the space of closed subsets, taken with the Hausdorff
topology. These hyperspaces are discussed and used to give a
new characterization of almost periodic homomorphisms.
Regular minimal sets may be described as minimal subsets
of enveloping semigroups. Regular homomorphisms are defined
in Chapter II by extending this notion to homomorphisms with
minimal range. Several characterizations are obtained.
In Chapter III, some additional results on homomorphisms
are obtained by relativizing enveloping semigroup notions.
In Veech's paper on point distal flows, hyperspaces are
used to associate an almost one-to-one homomorphism with a
given homomorphism of metric minimal sets. In Chapter IV, a
non-metric generalization of this construction is studied in
detail using the new notion of a highly proximal homomorphism.
An abstract characterization is obtained, involving only the
abstract properties of homomorphisms. A strengthened version
of the Veech Structure Theorem for point distal flows is
proved.
In Chapter V, the work in the earlier chapters is
applied to the study of homomorphisms for which the almost
periodic elements of the associated hyperspace are all
finite. In the metric case, this is equivalent to having
at least one fiber finite. Strong results are obtained by
first assuming regularity, and then assuming that the relative
proximal relation is closed as well.
1974-01-01T00:00:00ZQuantitative Derivation of Effective Evolution Equations for the Dynamics of Bose-Einstein CondensatesKuz, Elifhttp://hdl.handle.net/1903/183652016-06-23T02:40:59Z2016-01-01T00:00:00ZQuantitative Derivation of Effective Evolution Equations for the Dynamics of Bose-Einstein Condensates
Kuz, Elif
This thesis proves certain results concerning an important question in non-equilibrium quantum statistical mechanics which is the derivation of effective evolution equations approximating the dynamics of a system of large number of bosons initially at equilibrium (ground state at very low temperatures). The dynamics of such systems are governed by the time-dependent linear many-body Schroedinger equation from which it is typically difficult to extract useful information due to the number of particles being large. We will study quantitatively (i.e. with explicit bounds on the error) how a suitable one particle non-linear Schroedinger equation arises in the mean field limit as number of particles N → ∞ and how the appropriate corrections to the mean field will provide better approximations of the exact dynamics.
In the first part of this thesis we consider the evolution of N bosons, where N is large, with two-body interactions of the form N³ᵝv(Nᵝ⋅), 0≤β≤1. The parameter β measures the strength and the range of interactions. We compare the exact evolution with an approximation which considers the evolution of a mean field coupled with an appropriate description of pair excitations, see [18,19] by Grillakis-Machedon-Margetis. We extend the results for 0 ≤ β < 1/3 in [19, 20] to the case of β < 1/2 and obtain an error bound of the form p(t)/Nᵅ, where α>0 and p(t) is a polynomial, which implies a specific rate of convergence as N → ∞.
In the second part, utilizing estimates of the type discussed in the first part, we compare the exact evolution with the mean field approximation in the sense of marginals. We prove that the exact evolution is close to the approximate in trace norm for times of the order o(1)√N compared to log(o(1)N) as obtained in Chen-Lee-Schlein [6] for the Hartree evolution. Estimates of similar type are obtained for stronger interactions as well.
2016-01-01T00:00:00ZFundamental domains for proper affine actions of Coxeter groups in three dimensionsLaun, Gregoryhttp://hdl.handle.net/1903/183622016-06-23T02:40:40Z2016-01-01T00:00:00ZFundamental domains for proper affine actions of Coxeter groups in three dimensions
Laun, Gregory
We study proper actions of groups $G \cong \Z/2\Z \ast \Z/2\Z \ast \Z/2\Z$ on affine space of three real dimensions. Since $G$ is nonsolvable, work of Fried and Goldman implies that it preserves a Lorentzian metric. A subgroup $\Gamma < G$ of index two acts freely, and $\R^3/\Gamma$ is a Margulis spacetime associated to a hyperbolic surface $\Sigma$.
When $\Sigma$ is convex cocompact, work of Danciger, Gu{\'e}ritaud, and Kassel shows that the action of $\Gamma$ admits a polyhedral fundamental domain bounded by crooked planes. We consider under what circumstances the action of $G$ also admits a crooked fundamental domain.
We show that it is possible to construct actions of $G$ that fail to admit crooked fundamental domains exactly when the extended mapping class group of $\Sigma$ fails to act transitively on the top-dimensional simplices of the arc complex of $\Sigma$. We also provide explicit descriptions of the moduli space of $G$ actions that admit crooked fundamental domains.
2016-01-01T00:00:00ZSpectral Frame Analysis and Learning through Graph StructureClark, Chae Almonhttp://hdl.handle.net/1903/183402016-06-23T02:37:34Z2016-01-01T00:00:00ZSpectral Frame Analysis and Learning through Graph Structure
Clark, Chae Almon
This dissertation investigates the connection between spectral analysis and frame theory. When considering the spectral properties of a frame, we present a few novel results relating to the spectral decomposition. We first show that scalable frames have the property that the inner product of the scaling coefficients and the eigenvectors must equal the inverse eigenvalues. From this, we prove a similar result when an approximate scaling is obtained.
We then focus on the optimization problems inherent to the scalable frames by first showing that there is an equivalence between scaling a frame and optimization problems with a non-restrictive objective function. Various objective functions are considered, and an analysis of the solution type is presented. For linear objectives, we can encourage sparse scalings, and with barrier objective functions, we force dense solutions. We further consider frames in high dimensions, and derive various solution techniques.
From here, we restrict ourselves to various frame classes, to add more specificity to the results. Using frames generated from distributions allows for the placement of probabilistic bounds on scalability. For discrete distributions (Bernoulli and Rademacher), we bound the probability of encountering an ONB, and for continuous symmetric distributions (Uniform and Gaussian), we show that symmetry is retained in the transformed domain. We also prove several hyperplane-separation results.
With the theory developed, we discuss graph applications of the scalability framework. We make a connection with graph conditioning, and show the in-feasibility of the problem in the general case. After a modification, we show that any complete graph can be conditioned.
We then present a modification of standard PCA (robust PCA) developed by Cand\`es, and give some background into Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (EELS). We design a novel scheme for the processing of EELS through robust PCA and least-squares regression, and test this scheme on biological samples.
Finally, we take the idea of robust PCA and apply the technique of kernel PCA to perform robust manifold learning. We derive the problem and present an algorithm for its solution. There is also discussion of the differences with RPCA that make theoretical guarantees difficult.
2016-01-01T00:00:00Z