DRUM Collection: Electrical & Computer Engineering Theses and Dissertationshttp://hdl.handle.net/1903/27652014-10-23T04:29:04Z2014-10-23T04:29:04ZAN ADAPTIVELY SAMPLED PATH PLANNER USING WAYPOINTS: AN ANY-ANGLE VARIANTGefen, Yonatanhttp://hdl.handle.net/1903/159472014-10-18T02:31:48Z2014-01-01T00:00:00ZTitle: AN ADAPTIVELY SAMPLED PATH PLANNER USING WAYPOINTS: AN ANY-ANGLE VARIANT
Authors: Gefen, Yonatan
Abstract: This thesis develops a low-cost grid-based path planner that intrinsically supports smooth, curved vehicle dynamics. There are many advantages to grid-based planners, including working natively in the digital space of most sensors, and efficiency in low dimensional space. However, discrete planners create jaggedness in most paths. Further, the dimensionality must be limited for efficiency, usually by limiting vehicle steering angles to a small finite set.
The algorithm presented here, Waypoint-A*, extends A* to produce low-cost curved trajectories, taking the dynamics of the vehicle into account explicitly post-planning. Considering the path generated by A* as composed of a set of waypoints, Waypoint-A* calculates the minimum-cost heading on a continuum, to direct the vehicle to the waypoint at the location resulting in the lowest total cost. Smoothness of these curves is invariant to terrain resolution and computation.2014-01-01T00:00:00ZPlanar Slow-Wave Structure with Parasitic Mode ControlNguyen, Long Baohttp://hdl.handle.net/1903/159332014-10-18T02:30:45Z2014-01-01T00:00:00ZTitle: Planar Slow-Wave Structure with Parasitic Mode Control
Authors: Nguyen, Long Bao
Abstract: Modern vacuum tube devices dominate the field of high power and high frequency electronics. Among them, the Traveling Wave Tube Amplifier (TWTA) has broad bandwidth and consequently a wide range of applications. In this thesis, a planar sheath-like slow wave structure with rectangular geometry is studied and considered for use in a TWTA driven by a sheet electron beam. Although use of a wide sheet beam promises high power, the large transverse dimension of the structure risks interaction of the beam with multiple backward wave modes. Both the operating mode and the parasitic modes are analyzed using field theories with the planar sheath approximation. These solutions are then compared with finite element computations. Suppression of backward waves is then considered by designing the structure to preferentially absorb these waves. The results show good control of mode competition and high primary mode gain.2014-01-01T00:00:00ZDistributed Load Balancing Algorithm in Wireless NetworksSheikhattar, Alirezahttp://hdl.handle.net/1903/159192014-10-17T02:33:36Z2014-01-01T00:00:00ZTitle: Distributed Load Balancing Algorithm in Wireless Networks
Authors: Sheikhattar, Alireza
Abstract: As communication networks scale up in size, complexity and demand, effective distribution of the traffic load throughout the network is a matter of great importance. Load balancing will enhance the network throughput and enables us to utilize both communication and energy resources more evenly through an efficient redistribution of traffic load across the network.
This thesis provides an algorithm for balancing the traffic load in a general network setting. Unlike most of state-of-the-art algorithms in load balancing context, the proposed method is fully distributed, eliminating the need to collect information at a central node and thereby improving network reliability. The effective distribution of load is realized through solving a convex optimization problem where the p-norm of network load is minimized subject to network physical constraints. The optimization solution relies on the Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers (ADMM), which is a powerful tool for solving distributed convex optimization problems. A three-step ADMM-based iterative scheme is derived from suitably reformulated form of p-norm problem. The distributed implementation of the proposed algorithm is further elaborated by introducing a projection step and an initialization setup. The projection step involves an inner-loop iterative scheme to solve linear subproblems. In a distributed setting, each iteration step requires communication among all neighboring nodes. Due to high energy consumption of node-to-node communication, it is most appealing to devise a fast and computationally efficient iterative scheme which can converge to optimal solution within a desired accuracy by using as few iteration steps as possible. A fast convergence iterative scheme is presented which shows superior convergence performance compared to conventional methods. Inspired by fast propagation of waves in physical media, this iterative scheme is derived from partial differential equations for propagation of electrical voltages and currents in a transmission line.
To perform these iterations, all nodes should have access to an acceleration parameter which relies on the network topology. The initialization stage is developed in order to overcome the last challenging obstacle toward achieving a fully distributed algorithm.2014-01-01T00:00:00ZAn ultra-low power voltage regulator system for wireless sensor networks powered by energy harvestingWang, Chaohttp://hdl.handle.net/1903/159132014-10-17T02:33:23Z2014-01-01T00:00:00ZTitle: An ultra-low power voltage regulator system for wireless sensor networks powered by energy harvesting
Authors: Wang, Chao
Abstract: A DC-DC converter is an important power management module as it converts one DC voltage level to another suitable for powering a desired electronic system. It also stabilizes the output voltage when fluctuations appear in the power supplies. For those wireless sensor networks (WSNs) powered by energy harvesting, the DC-DC converter is usually a linear regulator and it resides at the last stage of the whole energy harvesting system just before the empowering sensor node. Due to the low power densities of energy sources, one may have to limit the quiescent current of the linear regulator in the sub-uA regime. This severe restriction on quiescent current could greatly compromise other performance aspects, especially the transient response.
This dissertation reports a voltage regulator system topology which utilizes the sensor node state information to achieve ultra-low power consumption. The regulator system is composed of two regulators with different current driving abilities and quiescent current consumptions. The key idea is to switch between the two regulators depending on the sensor state. Since the "right" regulator is used at the "right" time, the average quiescent current of the regulator system is minimized, and the trade-off between low quiescent current and fast transient response has been eliminated. In order to minimize the average quiescent current of the system, nano-ampere reference current design is studied, and the proposed reference current circuit is shown (theoretically and experimentally) to reduce the supply voltage dependence by 5X.
The regulator system has been fabricated and tested using an ON Semiconductor 0.5 μm process. It has been verified through experiments that the proposed system reduces the quiescent current by 3X over the state-of-the-art in the literature; and, more importantly, it achieves low quiescent current, low dropout voltage, and fast transient response with small output voltage variation all at the same time. The thesis further presents data on the application of energy harvesting system deriving energies from various RF signals to power a commercial off-shelf wireless sensor node.2014-01-01T00:00:00Z