Aerospace Engineering Theses and Dissertationshttp://hdl.handle.net/1903/27372017-02-28T14:28:47Z2017-02-28T14:28:47ZEffects of Tidal Forces on the Minimum Energy Configurations of the Full Three Body ProblemLevine, Edwardhttp://hdl.handle.net/1903/191032017-01-26T03:43:55Z2016-01-01T00:00:00ZEffects of Tidal Forces on the Minimum Energy Configurations of the Full Three Body Problem
Levine, Edward
We investigate the evolution of minimum energy configurations for the Full Three Body Problem (3BP). A stable ternary asteroid system will gradually become unstable due to the Yarkovsky-O’Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) effect and an unpredictable trajectory will ensue. Through the interaction of tidal torques, energy in the system will dissipate in the form of heat until a stable minimum energy configuration is reached. We present a simulation that describes the dynamical evolution of three bodies under the mutual effects of gravity and tidal torques. Simulations show that bodies do not get stuck in local minima and transition to the predicted minimum energy configuration.
2016-01-01T00:00:00ZNonlinear Interactions in Planar Jet Flow with High Frequency ExcitationKreutzfeldt, Timothyhttp://hdl.handle.net/1903/190852017-01-26T03:43:24Z2016-01-01T00:00:00ZNonlinear Interactions in Planar Jet Flow with High Frequency Excitation
Kreutzfeldt, Timothy
An experimental active flow control study was conducted involving excitation of a tabletop planar turbulent jet with a high frequency piezoelectric actuator. The excitation frequencies considered corresponded to the dissipative subrange of turbulent kinetic energy and were orders of magnitude greater than classical shear layer instability modes. Single-wire and dual-wire hot wire probes were used to determine how excitation induces alterations to bulk flow quantities as well as nonlinear interactions. Differences in flow receptivity to high frequency excitation were investigated by varying the development length of the turbulent jet at a Reynolds number of 8,700 and Strouhal number of 21.3. Excitation of developed turbulent flow yielded larger increases in the energy dissipation rate and higher magnitude velocity power spectrum peaks at the forcing frequency than undeveloped turbulent flow. Further tests with excitation of reduced mean velocity flow at a Reynolds number of 6,600 and a Strouhal number of 27.8 demonstrated that high frequency forcing resulted in transfer of energy from large to small scales in the turbulent kinetic energy spectrum. This phenomenon appeared to support past literature that indicated that the mechanics of high frequency forcing are fundamentally different from conventional instability-based forcing.
Theoretical arguments are presented to support these experimental observations where it is shown that coupling between the applied forcing and background turbulent fluctuations is enhanced. An eddy viscosity model first proposed under the assumption of instability-based forcing was shown to be an effective approximation for the experimental measurements presented here in which the flow was forced directly at turbulence scales. Dimensional analysis of the coupling between the induced oscillations and the turbulent fluctuations supported experimental findings that receptivity to excitation was increased for forced flow with higher turbulent kinetic energy, higher excitation amplitude, and lower energy dissipation rate. This study is the first to present such results which validate a model that offers theoretical insight into flow control mechanics when directly forcing small scale turbulent fluctuations.
2016-01-01T00:00:00ZDevelopment and Application of Theoretical Models for Rotating Detonation Engine FlowfieldsFievisohn, Roberthttp://hdl.handle.net/1903/190712017-01-26T03:42:59Z2016-01-01T00:00:00ZDevelopment and Application of Theoretical Models for Rotating Detonation Engine Flowfields
Fievisohn, Robert
As turbine and rocket engine technology matures, performance increases between successive generations of engine development are becoming smaller. One means of accomplishing significant gains in thermodynamic performance and power density is to use detonation-based heat release instead of deflagration. This work is focused on developing and applying theoretical models to aid in the design and understanding of Rotating Detonation Engines (RDEs). In an RDE, a detonation wave travels circumferentially along the bottom of an annular chamber where continuous injection of fresh reactants sustains the detonation wave. RDEs are currently being designed, tested, and studied as a viable option for developing a new generation of turbine and rocket engines that make use of detonation heat release. One of the main challenges in the development of RDEs is to understand the complex flowfield inside the annular chamber. While simplified models are desirable for obtaining timely performance estimates for design analysis, one-dimensional models may not be adequate as they do not provide flow structure information. In this work, a two-dimensional physics-based model is developed, which is capable of modeling the curved oblique shock wave, exit swirl, counter-flow, detonation inclination, and varying pressure along the inflow boundary. This is accomplished by using a combination of shock-expansion theory, Chapman-Jouguet detonation theory, the Method of Characteristics (MOC), and other compressible flow equations to create a shock-fitted numerical algorithm and generate an RDE flowfield. This novel approach provides a numerically efficient model that can provide performance estimates as well as details of the large-scale flow structures in seconds on a personal computer. Results from this model are validated against high-fidelity numerical simulations that may require a high-performance computing framework to provide similar performance estimates. This work provides a designer a new tool to conduct large-scale parametric studies to optimize a design space before conducting computationally-intensive, high-fidelity simulations that may be used to examine additional effects. The work presented in this thesis not only bridges the gap between simple one-dimensional models and high-fidelity full numerical simulations, but it also provides an effective tool for understanding and exploring RDE flow processes.
2016-01-01T00:00:00ZWave impedance selection for passivity-based bilateral teleoperationD'Amore, Nicholashttp://hdl.handle.net/1903/187402016-09-10T02:37:59Z2016-01-01T00:00:00ZWave impedance selection for passivity-based bilateral teleoperation
D'Amore, Nicholas
When a task must be executed in a remote or dangerous environment, teleoperation systems may be employed to extend the influence of the human operator. In the case of manipulation tasks, haptic feedback of the forces experienced by the remote (slave) system is often highly useful in improving an operator's ability to perform effectively. In many of these cases (especially teleoperation over the internet and ground-to-space teleoperation), substantial communication latency exists in the control loop and has the strong tendency to cause instability of the system. The first viable solution to this problem in the literature was based on a scattering/wave transformation from transmission line theory. This wave transformation requires the designer to select a wave impedance parameter appropriate to the teleoperation system. It is widely recognized that a small value of wave impedance is well suited to free motion and a large value is preferable for contact tasks. Beyond this basic observation, however, very little guidance exists in the literature regarding the selection of an appropriate value. Moreover, prior research on impedance selection generally fails to account for the fact that in any realistic contact task there will simultaneously exist contact considerations (perpendicular to the surface of contact) and quasi-free-motion considerations (parallel to the surface of contact). The primary contribution of the present work is to introduce an approximate linearized optimum for the choice of wave impedance and to apply this quasi-optimal choice to the Cartesian reality of such a contact task, in which it cannot be expected that a given joint will be either perfectly normal to or perfectly parallel to the motion constraint.
The proposed scheme selects a wave impedance matrix that is appropriate to the conditions encountered by the manipulator. This choice may be implemented as a static wave impedance value or as a time-varying choice updated according to the instantaneous conditions encountered. A Lyapunov-like analysis is presented demonstrating that time variation in wave impedance will not violate the passivity of the system. Experimental trials, both in simulation and on a haptic feedback device, are presented validating the technique. Consideration is also given to the case of an uncertain environment, in which an a priori impedance choice may not be possible.
2016-01-01T00:00:00Z