Mathematicshttp://hdl.handle.net/1903/22612016-10-28T17:55:35Z2016-10-28T17:55:35ZPhase transitions in gene networks evolved under different selection rulesPushkar, Alexandrahttp://hdl.handle.net/1903/187832016-09-10T02:36:26Z2016-01-01T00:00:00ZPhase transitions in gene networks evolved under different selection rules
Pushkar, Alexandra
Mathematical models of gene regulation are a powerful tool for understanding the complex features of genetic control.
While various modeling efforts have been successful at explaining gene expression dynamics, much less is known about how evolution shapes the structure of these networks.
An important feature of gene regulatory networks is their stability in response to environmental perturbations. Regulatory systems are thought to have evolved to exist near the transition between stability and instability, in order to have the required stability to environmental fluctuations while also being able to achieve a wide variety of functions (corresponding to different dynamical patterns).
We study a simplified model of gene network evolution in which links are added via different selection rules.
These growth models are inspired by recent work on `explosive' percolation which shows that when network links are added through competitive rather than random processes, the connectivity phase transition can be significantly delayed, and when it is reached, it appears to be first order (discontinuous, e.g., going from no failure at all to large expected failure) instead of second order (continuous, e.g., going from no failure at all to very small expected failure).
We find that by modifying the traditional framework for networks grown via competitive link addition to capture how gene networks evolve to avoid damage propagation, we also see significant delays in the transition that depend on the selection rules, but the transitions always appear continuous rather than `explosive'.
2016-01-01T00:00:00ZMultiscale Modeling and Simulation of Stepped Crystal SurfacesSchneider, Joshua Peterhttp://hdl.handle.net/1903/187562016-09-10T02:34:30Z2016-01-01T00:00:00ZMultiscale Modeling and Simulation of Stepped Crystal Surfaces
Schneider, Joshua Peter
A primary goal of this dissertation is to understand the links between mathematical models that describe crystal surfaces at three fundamental length scales: The scale of individual atoms, the scale of collections of atoms forming crystal defects, and macroscopic scale. Characterizing connections between different classes of models is a critical task for gaining insight into the physics they describe, a long-standing objective in applied analysis, and also highly relevant in engineering applications. The key concept I use in each problem addressed in this thesis is coarse graining, which is a strategy for connecting fine representations or models with coarser representations. Often this idea is invoked to reduce a large discrete system to an appropriate continuum description, e.g. individual particles are represented by a continuous density. While there is no general theory of coarse graining, one closely related mathematical approach is asymptotic analysis, i.e. the description of limiting behavior as some parameter becomes very large or very small. In the case of crystalline solids, it is natural to consider cases where the number of particles is large or where the lattice spacing is small. Limits such as these often make explicit the nature of links between models capturing different scales, and, once established, provide a means of improving our understanding, or the models themselves. Finding appropriate variables whose limits illustrate the important connections between models is no easy task, however. This is one area where computer simulation is extremely helpful, as it allows us to see the results of complex dynamics and gather clues regarding the roles of different physical quantities. On the other hand, connections between models enable the development of novel multiscale computational schemes, so understanding can assist computation and vice versa. Some of these ideas are demonstrated in this thesis. The important outcomes of this thesis include: (1) a systematic derivation of the step-flow model of Burton, Cabrera, and Frank, with corrections, from an atomistic solid-on-solid-type models in 1+1 dimensions; (2) the inclusion of an atomistically motivated transport mechanism in an island dynamics model allowing for a more detailed account of mound evolution; and (3) the development of a hybrid discrete-continuum scheme for simulating the relaxation of a faceted crystal mound. Central to all of these modeling and simulation efforts is the presence of steps composed of individual layers of atoms on vicinal crystal surfaces. Consequently, a recurring theme in this research is the observation that mesoscale defects play a crucial role in crystal morphological evolution.
2016-01-01T00:00:00ZTHE STOCHASTIC NAVIER STOKES EQUATIONS FOR HEAT CONDUCTING, COMPRESSIBLE FLUIDSSmith, Scott Andrewhttp://hdl.handle.net/1903/187462016-09-10T02:38:14Z2016-01-01T00:00:00ZTHE STOCHASTIC NAVIER STOKES EQUATIONS FOR HEAT CONDUCTING, COMPRESSIBLE FLUIDS
Smith, Scott Andrew
This dissertation is devoted to the equations of motion governing the evolution of a fluid or gas at the macroscopic scale. The classical model is a PDE description known as the Navier-Stokes equations. The behavior of solutions is notoriously complex, leading many in the scientific community to describe fluid mechanics using a statistical language. In the physics literature, this is often done in an ad-hoc manner with limited precision about the sense in which the randomness enters the evolution equation. The stochastic PDE community has begun proposing precise models, where a random perturbation appears explicitly in the evolution equation. Although this has been an active area of study in recent years, the existing literature is almost entirely devoted to incompressible fluids.
The purpose of this thesis is to take a step forward in addressing this statistical perspective in the setting of compressible fluids. In particular, we study the well posedness for the corresponding system of Stochastic Navier Stokes equations, satisfied by the density, velocity, and temperature. The evolution of the momentum involves a random forcing which is Brownian in time and colored in space. We allow for multiplicative noise, meaning that spatial correlations may depend locally on the fluid variables.
Our main result is a proof of global existence of weak martingale solutions to the Cauchy problem set within a bounded domain, emanating from large initial datum. The proof involves a mix of deterministic and stochastic analysis tools. Fundamentally, the approach is based on weak compactness techniques from the deterministic theory combined with martingale methods. Four layers of approximate stochastic PDE's are built and analyzed. A careful study of the probability laws of our approximating sequences is required. We prove appropriate tightness results and appeal to a recent generalization of the Skorohod theorem. This ultimately allows us to deduce analogues of the weak compactness tools of Lions and Feireisl, appropriately interpreted in the stochastic setting.
2016-01-01T00:00:00ZVehicle Routing Problems that Minimize the Completion Time: Heuristics, Worst-Case Analyses, and Computational ResultsWang, Xingyinhttp://hdl.handle.net/1903/187102016-09-10T02:36:35Z2016-01-01T00:00:00ZVehicle Routing Problems that Minimize the Completion Time: Heuristics, Worst-Case Analyses, and Computational Results
Wang, Xingyin
In the standard Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP), we route a fleet of vehicles to deliver the demands of all customers such that the total distance traveled by the fleet is minimized. In this dissertation, we study variants of the VRP that minimize the completion time, i.e., we minimize the distance of the longest route. We call it the min-max objective function. In applications such as disaster relief efforts and military operations, the objective is often to finish the delivery or the task as soon as possible, not to plan routes with the minimum total distance. Even in commercial package delivery nowadays, companies are investing in new technologies to speed up delivery instead of focusing merely on the min-sum objective.
In this dissertation, we compare the min-max and the standard (min-sum) objective functions in a worst-case analysis to show that the optimal solution with respect to one objective function can be very poor with respect to the other. The results motivate the design of algorithms specifically for the min-max objective. We study variants of min-max VRPs including one problem from the literature (the min-max Multi-Depot VRP) and two new problems (the min-max Split Delivery Multi-Depot VRP with Minimum Service Requirement and the min-max Close-Enough VRP). We develop heuristics to solve these three problems. We compare the results produced by our heuristics to the best-known solutions in the literature and find that our algorithms are effective. In the case where benchmark instances are not available, we generate instances whose near-optimal solutions can be estimated based on geometry.
We formulate the Vehicle Routing Problem with Drones and carry out a theoretical analysis to show the maximum benefit from using drones in addition to trucks to reduce delivery time. The speed-up ratio depends on the number of drones loaded onto one truck and the speed of the drone relative to the speed of the truck.
2016-01-01T00:00:00Z